The Rising Sun -- Japanese Expansion from 1894 to 1941 (Text Content)

This web page, published by the Military Postal History Society, contains the text content of the 10 frames of the exhibit The Rising Sun -- Japanese Expansion from 1894 to 1941. This exhibit was created by, and is the property of the late Al Kugel, and is being supplied by his heirs as a courtesy to the Military Postal History Society.

Introduction Text

This exhibit illustrates with philatelic material the expansion of the Japanese Empire from the first war with China in 1894-95 up to the eve of the attack on Pearl Harbor. It includes military mail from the Japanese Imperial forces as well as civil mail sent from the newly-occupied territories. Key sections of the exhibit reflect the Japanese participation in the suppression of the Boxer Uprising, the occupation of German colonies in the Pacific early in World War I, and the intervention in Siberia at the end of that conflict. The concluding sections relate to warlike "incidents" which resulted in the complete occupation of Manchuria in 1931-41, followed by North and Central China in 1937-41.

To view the exhibit page images, see: web page containing the image content of the first exhibit frame.

Updated 12/19/2022

Text Content of Exhibit


This exhibit illustrates with philatelic material the expansion of the Japanese Empire from the first war with China in 1894-95 up to the eve of the attack on Pearl Harbor. It includes military mail from the Japanese Imperial forces as well as civil mail sent from the newly- occupied territories. Key sections of the exhibit reflect the Japanese participation in the suppression of the Boxer Uprising, the occupation of German colonies in the Pacific early in World War I, and the intervention in Siberia at the end of that conflict. The concluding sections relate to warlike "incidents" which resulted in the complete occupation of Manchuria in 1931-41, followed by North and Central China in 1937-41.

Until the visit of Commodore Matthew Perry's warships from America in 1853, the Japanese lived in essential isolation from the Western world. The shock effect of that event forced the Japanese to open themselves to foreign trade and influence but, more importantly, created a resolve on their part to modernize their military forces in order to be prepared to defend themselves and their interests against any future threats from abroad. Within a few decades, Japan was ready to address long- standing disputes with its neighbors -- a policy that was carried out with outstanding success throughout the entire period covered by this exhibit.

The organization of the-material shown is basically chronological, with items related to each particular campaign being shown sequentially. However, mail sent from the various territories taken over as a result of a particular event is shown in “aftermath” sections following each specific campaign. For example, since Korea was added to the empire as a result of the Russo-Japanese War, all material shown in the exhibit from _ Korea is included immediately following the military mail from that conflict.

Inbound card to a soldier in the occupation force at Weihaiwei (Ukaiei Dai Ichi Yasen Kyoku) following the Sino-Japanese War. Bright vermilion receiving mark of Field Post Office No. 1 in Weihaiwei on 21 July 1896.



6th FPO

26 December 1894

Inbound to 5th FPO

9 June 1895

The war with China was primarily a conflict over Korea, a tributary kingdom to the Chinese emperor. Hostilities were initiated when a Japanese warship attacked a vessel ferrying Chinese soldiers to Korea on 25 July 1894, and the first land battle took place at Pyongyang four days later.. War was not formally declared until 3 August. The Japanese forces steadily drove the Chinese back and conquered all of Korea and Souther Manchuria.

Postal card at domestic rate of 1 sen above was sent by soldier attached to the Fifth Division in Korea to Hiroshima, Japan. Inbound cover with 2 sen domestic postage mailed from Japan to "Chosen Koku, Heijo Heitanbu" (Korea/Pyongyang Line of Communications Headquarters).


Lyaotung Peninsula 27 December 1894

12th FPO

5 April 1895

In addition to the attack on Chinese forces in Korea, Japanese troops also landed on the Lyaotung Peninsula in southern Manchuria. Fieldpost covers above sent by soldiers of the Second Army. The earlier sender was attached to the First Field Infantry Regiment at Kinshu and the later is from the 15th Infantry Regiment at Kaiping, on the West Coast of the peninsula.


China 23 February 1895

12 March 1895

Postal card and fieldpost cover sent by soldiers attached to the First Army. Cover is from headquarters at Kaijo and was received at Shimotsuke on 14 April 1895. Sender's address reads "In China, Sekyo Province." Contents state "only one Gunji Yubin (military letter) permitted for each soldier,” indicating a monthly rationing of mail.


China 10 March 1895

18th FPO

6 June 1895

As the war progressed, the Japanese were victorious everywhere. On the sea, they succeeded in destroying the Chinese Northern Fleet, and on land they forced the Chinese army back across the Yalu River into Manchuria and so far westward that a threat was posed to Peking itself. .

Fieldpost covers above sent by soldiers attached to the Second Army Line of Communications at Chin Chow and the First Army, respectively. As was customary at this time, postmarks of the field post stations were typically struck in bright vermilion ink.

Inbound to 4th FPO

29 March 1895



Lai vet fe : a eo “enh = t oat fia Wa i s ( fl ath iT 4 i re i rey esi a i : | ' i i i, Mo 4 l LSE ES EE RecA Se : &R 2a py eae iba wrrreresesen “es| FOOLER OCLOOES E945 id EP AL IIE ER BN HAL FC CNS @ EE ERERS WOVOTIIO GO TRE (6) 4 4 ‘ et nO ae) As Ate Inbound postal card to FPO 4 from Echigo Oshima; addressed to soldier in Second Army, 5?th Division, 16th Regiment, 2nd Battalion. SINO-JAPANESE WAR 8th FPO China 3 May 1895 The last battle in Manchuria occurred on 9 March.1895, following which the Chinese capitulated. The Treaty of Shimonoseki was signed on 17 April, providing for the ending of Chinese claims on Korea and the cession of Taiwan, the Pescadores Islands and the Liaotung Peninsula to Japan.. France, Germany and Russia strongly opposed this latter provision and persuaded the Japanese to accept a large reparations payment by the Chinese. Fieldpost cover above sent by soldier attached to the Independent Reserve Infantry at Antung on the Yalu River and received in Japan on 23 May 1895. Ikaiei, Ist FPO SINO-JAPANESE WAR 4 August 1896 China In addition to the main attack through Korea and across Southem Manchuria, a part of the Second Army landed at Weihaiwei on the Shantung Peninsula and captured the city on 12 February 1895. These forces remained in occupation until 1898 when the area was leased to Great Britain. Fieldpost cover above sent by soldier attached to the 15th Infantry Regiment at Weihaiwei (Ikaiei) with arrival marking of Minowa, Japan. SINO-JAPANESE WAR . Ikaiei, Ist FPO China 23 January 1898 = a PREP eT ore ® é a 4 CTV TEI PEE EO ee ee rs ree cr 3 rT TTY reper ee t er gist In 1898, toward the end of the occupation period, the ink used for postmarking at Weihaiwei was changed to a black-brown color. The above example is dated 30.1.23 in the typical Japanese style of the period, i.e. the 23rd of January in the 30th year of the Meiji reign (Emperor Mutsuhito). Inbound card sent as a New Year's greeting from Japan to soldier attached to the 15th Infantry Regiment at Weihaiwei (Ikaiei). SINO-JAPANESE WAR 6th FPO Taiwan 28 September 1895 A second front was opened in the south when Japanese forces landed in the Pescadores Islands between Taiwan ...- - and mainland China on 23 March 1895. Following a revolt (Black Flag Uprising) by the Taiwanese people seeking independence from both China and Japan, the Imperial Guards landed on Taiwan itself on 29 May and faced continuing resistance until late October. Fieldpost cover above sent by soldier attached to the 1st Infantry Regiment of the Imperial Guards, with arrival marking of Sakata, Japan on 8 October 1895. SINO-JAPANESE WAR Taiwan Black Flag Republic 18 August 1895 Tainan 5 September 1895 Tort x ' 4 vs tf 1s | Messrs. TAIT. & | Co... a : I: : : 7 : : et The use of these local stamps did not reflect Japanese postal activity, although it was directly related to the declaration of war against China. The outbreak of war precipitated an indigenous uprising on Taiwan, leading to a local government and temporary issuance of the Black Flag stamps. Once the Japanese forces landed, the insurgents were quickly put down and the "Republic" capitulated on 21 October 1895. Postmark on the upper cover with 50 cash orange stamp is the earliest recorded date for this issue (per Chang). 8th FPO SINO-JAPANESE WAR 23 October 1895 Taiwan The Japanese clearly came to Taiwan with the intention of remaining permanently. On 2 July 1895, a Governor General was appointed and when resistance ended on 21 October, Taiwan was treated as an integral part of the Japanese Empire. Inbound cover sent from Japan to soldier attached to the 1st Regiment of the Imperial Guards at Hokuto in west central Taiwan. SINO-JAPANESE WAR : Ist FPO Taiwan 7 April 1896 rt {oh Fearon Tiger imnehieeeerny Zl E +, Ferien Tee Tr TIT IVI PITT Eventually, twenty field post stations were opened on Taiwan between 9 July 1895 and 21 March 1896. Although these were all officially converted to civil post offices as of 1 April 1896, the use of FPO markings is known up to the end of July. Postal card sent via field post by soldier in the 3rd Infantry Regiment of the Taiwan Garrison at Keelung (Kinun), received in Japan on 20 April. Writer states that he left Hiroshima on 1 April and arrived at Kirun on the 6th. SINO-JAPANESE WAR Ujina Japan 7 April 1895 Ss a ay LN Af bbdboe Lap iectiar hr ie a “poe / oh ieee! slat ar = Ae Ps AT. 4 CA bee ve CF Je 2 7? 2 Z Z a = Z Ze ee LZ sr eT Eo Clee 5 or shee LEO ALAZ a a 4 4 AM pt Te, ae eee ee ee a nad he ones eee cl pte. ae nyt eter, Tener OO ye Voce ce FLERE rt ie EAE he Hw Oe De ee — : fee Qeettdete file Desber. Bi So . Feb Heavens toni ae ye f 4, 4 Cover mailed by an American sailor working under contract.on the S.S. Yokohama Maru to a friend at Fort ~ Leavenworth. Letter states in part, "We are getting things ready for the raid on Peking. There are about 50 transports here now...We expect to sail about the 13th and first go to Port Arthur. From there we will probably go to the Taku forts to land the troops...We were at Wei-hei-wei during the siege. It was a pretty sight to see 22 Japanese men-of-war bombarding the Chinese fleet and forts...The Pescadore Islands have been captured. Formosa will probably be taken very soon." SINO-JAPANESE AFTERMATH Taiwan 4)CARTE POST as a a ieee MAA AS, ATE SS RATES On as pe y Pema Chefoo 29 September 1896 On 1 August 1896 asetof -.. Stamps depicting Field Marshal Arisugawa and General Kitashirakawa was issued to commemorate the victory in the war with China. These were valid for postage both in Japan and) :s.. the Japanese post officesin .. 2] China, as in Chefoo shown sean above. dite * Commemorative post card shows map of the annexed territories of Taiwan and the Pescadores Islands. SINO-JAPANESE AFTERMATH Kiirun Taiwan 1 January 1917 Pei Tou 1 September 1926 HS BS fa im EP IT 32 Je Belen a Postal card and cover with typical postmarks used during this period for internal mail. Cancels show usage in the 6th and 15th (and last) years of the Taisho reign (Emperor Yoshihito) who ruled from 1912 to 1926. SINO-JAPANESE AFT ERMATH Taiwan Tainan 23 September 1925 Intemational registered mail from Taiwan postmarked in English and forwarded via Yokohama. The use of a Japanese 50 sen definitive indicates a quadruple weight UPU letter rate plus registry fee of 10 sen. Such franking not seen previously by exhibitor. SINO-JAPANESE AFTERMATH Tathoku Taiwan 6 December 1927 19 February 1931 n¥aingy ystinoy, under QOWIO HONVUY Hed TVL Mail addressed to foreign destinations was cancelled with a different type of postmark, with the wording in English instead of Japanese and the year in Westen style instead of the reign date. In addition, the traditional name of the island was used instead of the Japanese version of Formosa. Registered mail is unusual. SINO-JAPANESE AFTERMATH Taiwan S 2 al +t it & 8 TS AN bm 4 fil : Tubs — cu a I Nel pear ce be b Post cards showing typical cancels u Taichu 26 November 1932 Chung Li 1 January 1935 ‘ Hremunpeds! t @#agaMASKA Vhs BTR eee Sed on internal mail during the Showa rei the 7th and 10th years of Emperor Hirohito, gn. Above examples used during SINO-JAPANESE AFTERMATH Boko Pescadores a 16 July 1911 7 June 1914 Mies Mt apart, {OORT P OSTAILE > ed tx ih ns 4 a aie Bi aa to g : |” CR@RIFE) THeater In pescavores, SLE (i iS Hi ) | Commercial mail from the Pescadores is very elusive. Picture post card mailed from the Pescadores to Toronto. Transit marks of Keelung, Taiwan of 21 July and Kobe, Japan of 26 July 1911. Cover from/JNS Suma at Boko to Navy Torpedo School at Yokosuka -- receiving mark of 11 June 1914. SINO-JAPANESE AFTERMATH Ryukyu Islands i «. bo RN A tt Cle y “ae & : en RES Union Postale Ges cs a | HIG 2 TAN a ai Ran gel aren ite ER eee San PN Sere ee ay ey OM pipe Naha 8 November 1909 19 April 1913 The Ryukyu Islands, which lie between Taiwan and Kyushu, were nominally tributary to the Chinese Empire but governed autonomously. In 1879 the Japanese overthrew the local prince and declared that they were part of the empire as Okinawa Prefecture. China refused to recognize the annexation, but after Formosa was taken over by Japan in 1895, the situation in the Ryukyus ceased to be disputed, and Japan _Temained in full control until the American invasion of Okinawa in the spring of 1945. Naha SINO-JAPANESE AFTERMATH 29 January 1914 Ryukyu Islands Okinawa Gushikawa 16 May 1926 a neyek wtf i é ~ i ee Mart) \o PN ta ap Be ep . IK S ean yeh tie mM Re ee : . iD 4 gd / —— “es AA M F POSTALE ION POSTAEE. s, —S ST RE AS ‘ 7 7 .. 5 “ Uae “ msg ee ‘ aly 32g ee 7 RSS Ba a es 5s Saline BAG mee ee Bet a mig a 2? oo AA “fF ae e og “ a te “et ; ‘. 1.2 a oe ee a Ra 4% me agard, 7 cr ad ; i 5 a S Tene pa Sg js oe a a." ES “os _— = rh > JB St epee GA, ‘ Mail from the Taisho period, such as the cards shown above from the 3rd and 15th (and last) year of Emperor Yoshihito's reign, is sought after as forerunners by Ryukyu collectors. BOXER UPRISING China Tientsin 17 October 1900 23 April 1901 x es SS Iau, — ies LMARRRRA LLL LLL A OY pill ARB eM ie eh Ne lr, TF at, SST a = } =] anew Tena cnrerpmgeee ren A= SO aay en i ‘ % SN 2p pepo nye ete cess oe se ev a PRA ZAALAAIAALAAMMRT AL DD, or, Seat x ; | I « (Catia bee avi POEEASE | ; ' areeramrrsecrsMorrrrrcemerosrerrsecesedsrcarsrrerersrcresessesssstsas (SSS SS a San usnoanaasex SS SS Se SS ae ———S——= ——— . ~Al be EL LLP Mey Pht tae Bt ty cl > i ft, nL Bh BN in. 2, I dtenipe nb BL! Ht Lh LL Ly. Le Qe pp pL BMD OF GT LIL LENG PH a 5 Pe Tongku operated as a sub-office of Tientsin from 3 July 1900 to 12 January 1901, when it was designated as an independent office. Registered mail from the Japanese post offices in China during the Boxer period is quite scarce. Tongku I.J.P.O. registry label on back is supplemented by English-language label for international mail. BOXER UPRISING Tungchow China 19 December 1900 The Japanese post offices in China were available for use by all members of the China Expeditionary Corps. _ European troops, and in particular the Germans, found that mail service back to their home countries was often more efficient going via Japan and across the Pacific and the United States. Thus, many of the covers normally available in the West that originated in the J apanese offices were not sent by Japanese soldiers but by Allies. Tungchow operated as a sub-office of Tientsin and/or Peking (authorities are in dispute on this point as well as the dates of operation: 15 or 22 September 1900 through 30 June or 7 September 1901), BOXER UPRISING Yangtsun China 14 January 1901 2 April 1901 Te caer re ee mene tte ne cect reer > + <7 2 a az + S = ee H ZS Se SETS TE See SOSTSSSECSTS SEES re Union Postale Universelle. 73 POSTAE = a VOC COSCO ET EEF ears Lefe aici be (Core RESERVE A ADRESSE.) (LAEMESHERE ERS SPP XAIDAR ARRRIALIPLLARLARLAL LAA LL LULL ALLL LALLLLLALLILLE LLL ILIA LALILLIILIL ISIS ALISA IAI IIIS IIIS II, £. SS SS SSS = {Ssh FNESTRAESOA OS OS SSS a j = a B \. ice : at OO! i Q ae RIARALRLKLLM AML APS LRKARRRAKRKLKKLKKK KL ARMA AL RALQRRMRR ALT Eo ES; in st SSS res eeo | = a a = By be S a EA a4 » o ey ig Operated as a sub-office of Tientsin from 10 September 1900 through 17 July 1901. RUSSO - JAPANESE WAR Manchuria 2nd Army FPO November 1904 em Bar be ¥ ae ub eka Ra eee ¢ we DPBS PIR GOR GI we os moe . ce Field Post Office No.1 16 February 1905 Field Post Office No.2 28 July 1905 Special postcards inscribed "Gunji Yubin” (Military Mail). Card on left sent by a soldier in the First Army to Toyokawa, where it was received on 25 February. Card on right received in Tokyo on 5 August. Field Post Office No.2 RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR Manchuria 14 November 1904 3 April 1905 SE eee ee ee . (IE ee) © a | a Whe Xe Bg reassess ay lu ¥ asase5ososas050s05052505050525250525252 "2525252525252 52525252525252520 252520" | yeas a c tt J _ “adi | a D cesses: pqriarioncecteshad:anony atk 3° t ace : cs ‘ te ot Met. ae ie . ge if eS Wan, atts 6 eas “AEN » oy | he SF en a BS a bi Sad ‘. a o4 ig! i: | Post card sent from the 2nd Army Field Operations and received in Japan on 22 November. Special letter sheet was sent by a soldier in the Reserve Infantry, 34th Regiment, 3rd Company. Message describes fierce fighting near Mukden in which the regiment suffered 700 killed or wounded and promotion of sender to Jotohei (PFC). Field Post Office No.3 RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR Manchuria 5 January 1905 2 May 1905 Field Post Office No.4 ren a AR rw fie *\. ee OG y ‘e : a ON \\ We N va . ae - i A A i a eon ire ati DAA oS aN yan vi Ma , 2nd Company, to Toyokawa, where it was don 15 January. Message indicates that he left Hiroshima on 15 August 1904 on the S.S. Hakata Maru, landed at Taku on the 21st, and is now stationed about 7 miles from Port Arthur. Post card sent by member of the vision 11th Construction Corps, 3rd Division, and was received in Japan on 13 May. Special Gunji Yubin letter sheet sent by soldier in the 9th receive RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR Lyaotung FPO 1 Lyaotung Peninsula 18 June 1905 September 1905 H a RPP ETT A RS RQ ema . Yee see ae \IMRRONTELKOKU. BRN occa a Sw re i ry ee. aed oC 2 - b> Bn 2S b ity ash be WY" 3 4 ats ‘ we ets f Sue Sf tare LNOr Fs Vt {s _ \ NA J\n1 au slp k d ed W Wwe et ‘ site A. xe : Fas Wak & 88. a 4 ny, se Ce py SNS, ree "ERT HES tg Et seienaled acrin Special military patriotic envelope sent by member of Lyaotung Defense Corps, 60th Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 9th Company to Nagasaki. Fieldpost card sent from soldier in Lyaotung area to Dairen. Following the peace treaty, Japan took over formal possession of the Lyaotung leasehold formerly held by Russia. RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR FPO 1 Sakhalin Island July 1905 In addition to the forces which were sent to Korea, Manchuria and the leased territory on the Lyaotung Peninsula, the Japanese invaded Sakhalin in order to retake the southern half of the island which had been seized by the Russians in 1875. Cover sent by soldier of the Independent 13th Division at Korsakov and is an early use of FPO No.1; this office had opened on 8 July, just two weeks earlier. RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR Sakhalin Defense Army Sakhalin Island 13 September 1905 The Japanese occupied the entire southern half of Sakhalin, which they were able to retain (until 1945) under terms of the Treaty of Portsmouth. Cover to Sendei from a soldier in the 51st Infantry Regiment (red handstamp). RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR New York to Kobe Mail Intercepted by the Russians June to September 1904 ja ee {ee ce TR ste OP tee 2 Ki 4 wee ose - A yg, . ee " a i s a ~ 4 i » AMERICAN | i. SEAMEN’S FRIEND SOCIETY t No. 76 WALL STREET, NEW YORK. p Organized May, 1828. Incorporated April, 1833, ‘ : Bethea, Homes, Chaplains and Sailor Missionaries, in the é Triced States and Fureign Countries. PUBLICATIONS ¢ 6 Sallor's Magazine,” ‘4 Seamen’s Friend,” “Life Boat.” Sys ae Ree LOAN LIBRARIES FOA SHIPS. HELPS DESTITUTE ANO SHIPWRECKED SEAMEN. Cover from U.S.A. which transited Tacoma, Washington on 5 July but was seized during its Trans-Pacific joumey in S.S. Calchas. Recaptured during the Russian retreat from southem Manchuria in August, when it received the three illegible Japanese postmarks and the red "Delayed" cachet. Backstamped for receipt at Kobe- on 9 September. An extraordinary usage. RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR News Correspondent Manchuria 7 August 1904 areas Ed pe ET ee oe ee rte Seite ot ne tant ead De Unusual usage with manuscript return address on reverse of "U.S. San Francisco Bulletin Reporter/2nd Anny Headquarters” in Japanese. Correspondent Wallace mailed this cover at the Second Army FPO. Unboxed red cachet indicates military mail, while the large boxed handstamp reads "2nd Army Headquarters Censored." RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR French Military Observer Korea 15 August 1904 panne S In the early Twentieth Century a number of armies permitted officers of friendly powers to travel with their forces as military observers. This was the case with the Japanese Army in 1904-05. Cover mailed with Korean postage from Seoul to Colonel Coroisart at the Japanese First Army headquarters, then at Chemulpo, Korea. RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR British Military Observer Manchuria November 1904 “oe a 2% Law. (lnc Waeg ay po EF DPRAG, OP ee es Rs) ‘ i a . 2 NE I ta Benicancl Pg se meee Hog i” ; Ke af tee . . = . "3 . wik oh tty ff bn) . 7 Cover from Lt. Col. C. V. Hume, Military Attache to the Japanese First Manchurian Amny, to Lt. Col. Wingate or D(eputy) A(ssistant) A(djutant) G(eneral) Intelligence, North China Command in Tientsin. Boxed cachet reads “Military Post Service," and circular red marking indicates censorship. Postmark is that of the Japanese First Ammy, 15th Field Operation. RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR Austro-Hungarian Military Observer Manchuria 27 March 1905 co ae i i a ans atom F et aan Abcg Unicon Postale Universelle. . i NEG CARTE: POSTALE The battle of Mukden was one of the bloodiest of the war, with losses of nearly 100,000 men on the Russian side and up to 50,000 Japanese. It lasted from 21 February to 10 March 1905, when the Russians were able to escape a Japanese encirclement and retreat northward from the city. Postcard from an Austrian officer attached to the Japanese Army. Message reads "Greetings from the battlefield of Mukden, 21 March 1905." Sent to a colleague at the Imperial War Ministry in Vienna.. RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR American Military Observer Manchuria 28 July 1905 Pe es +> Ulin Rail MéN, msn, LE Yrvtey _ Be Pe Ye et as Sue Cover from Captain John J. Pershing (later Commander of the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I), U.S. Army observer with the Japanese First Manchurian Army. Initially addressed to his wife care of the American Legation in Tokyo, it was forwarded in care of the "Taft Party" in Manila, where Secretary of State (later President) William Howard Taft was on an inspection tour. RUSSO-JAPANESE AFTERMATH Seoul Korea + sao Japan . Yokohama - ; 30 April 1906 Union Postale Universelle. CARTE POSTALE = Si & SiR 8 A CARTE POSTALE [ile e WHEE SS BUeMy j vas ee “Ow a Ta fy let . wt Ee | EF sy RP | Following the successful completion of the fighting, Japanese authorities took over. the management of the Korean postal service. Korean stamps were withdrawn from sale on 30 June 1905 and Japanese postage introduced on the following day. A special stamp incorporating both Japanese and Korean symbols was issued on 1 July to commemorate the amalgamation of the two postal systems. In the following year, a set of two values was issued to commemorate the victory and placed on sale at the time of the Triumphal Military Review. Registered post card with special commemorative cancellation is very unusual. RUSSO-JAPANESE AFTERMATH Japan Tokyo Korea Seoul 30 April 1906 a UN ai: Issued by the Department a a . ~ of Communications a8 a a) . 2 Sac ace: : «| : souvenir of the Army Review — : asae Wl . RE Uae hu * - : held in Tokio after the War, 5. =>. Z au The Triumphat Celebration m the Middle Ages. J In addition to the victory stamps, a souvenir post card was issued by the Department of Communications in connection with the Triumphal Military Review. These were often cancelled with the commemorative postmark. Cover to the French Consulate in Korea was also cancelled with the version of the special postmark issued to the office in Seoul, a very unusual usage on official mail. RUSSO-JAPANESE AFTERMATH Seoul Korea 20 August 1906 2 May 1910 » : Ae PS S| : "UNION POSTALE UNIVERSELLE - * PER OR ! CARTE POSTALE if “ vee a K ADDRESS ssh ott SS ot fj 2 : A TY Ay Apa eh E ! A oped f) ! i wit id i 7774 t~ (7 Yin > 24. wry ~ (orbry kort As in Taiwan after the Sino-Japanese War, the Japanese postal authorities used traditional spelling in the English versions of the postmarks in the early years following the annexation. Examples show both the earliest type with vertical lines in the "bridges" of the cds, while the later type is plain. RUSSO-JAPANESE AFTERMATH eae Korea 11 November 1 4 June 1908 oo Dect Comair UNION POSTALE UNIVERSETLLE B CARTE POSTALE Buia ial Se ae Aap we om agerney en ke : \ : ; : Ao themGe a ised se eS ake ee n,n ee © eimai + eee eee ti Net lm English version postmarks were issued for Chemulpo (Inchon) in two sizes for use on international mail. Registry usage with label reading "Imp. Jap. P.O. Chemulpo” is extremely elusive. RUSSO-JAPANESE AFTERMATH Ninsen Korea 26 October 1916 Keijo 21 October 1913 Tue BANK oF CHOSEN. — CHEMULPO, CiIOSEN, eer _To The Manager, The Yorn kxchange National Bank, . 7 Chicag yo a } pe bE enero ne ‘ ‘ = fe ee. ie + The Sontag hotel = ° _ a * . §, Bober, Proprietor Zs Seoul, tkorea Cable Address:—‘‘Sontag Seoul’’ Telepbone Ro. 739. After 1910, the international postmarks more clearly indicated the ownership of the country, at that point called by its Japanese name of Chosen.. Examples also show Japanese names of the cities with the Korean version in parentheses, i.e. Ninsen (Chemulpo) and Keijo (Seoul). Lower cover shows transit mark of Mukden-Changchun TPO used on the South Manchurian Railway. ee ee a ee er oe Ni eg aid RUSSO-JAPANESE AFTERMATH Gensan Korea 5 August 1921 English version postmarks were issued for Gensan (Wonsan) for use on international mail. Registry usage with label reading "Gensan" is very elusive. RUSSO-JAPANESE AFTERMATH Wonson Korea 23 October 1925 _— Taiku z 20 July 1928 J. G. McCAUL WONSAN, KOREA Fl ie BFW sc ee : Nid : a * Montgomery Ward‘&-co., Export Department, Chicago, Use 8s As 1 cf SERIES NRE Sy : | | Changchun : ie Ho, 2. 219 |: Japanese postmarks used on commercial international mail originating in Korea during the 1920s. Note the use of provisional registry label in English, which was later overstamped in Changchun. RUSSO-JAPANESE AFTERMATH Korea * “SAL ¢ = Se eee a SUbs oo ~ ” ; wie f su. Qiaeees ber Se 5 shan Se Rake Chunju 9 December 1929 , . a J 20 ISeurimene OF . pS a - be STauntren | s bs i : 40ST Unusual usage on a portion of parcel wrapping (stated to contain "knit bag"). Note the use of special insurance label with Japanese version of town name, Zenshu, in manuscript. RUSSO-JAPANESE AFTERMATH Seoul Korea 17 August 1932 Chinampo 13 June 1935 5 ee ee ee -_ Lg Gernld Bonwick 3 F#SKADRBRARE §* THE CHRISTIAN LITERATURE SOCIETY SEOUL, KOREA. ite Rupert P. % — manent Building Society North Paddington: *e 5 Sf ae 19 ate ysetern Koad, —_ SAE; eet qa KR oD (9 Bas BY Site: y 7 ; “ ty ii. 7° The use of Japanese postmarks on international mail continued during the Showa reign. RUSSO-JAPANESE AFTERMATH Seoul Korea 22 November 1937 10 March 1938 RETURN TO THE BANK OF CHOSEN. Keijo. Chosen, Tf unable to deliver within 5 days Measra Squibb & Sons, ss Squibb Building 745 Bt Avemme Rew York, U, S.A, | | : _-__—sCOREGISTERED REGISTERED Even later, an English version postmark with phonetic spelling of the Japanese words for the city and territory was introduced, although the older version registry labels continued in service. RUSSO-JAPANESE AFTERMATH Dairen Lyaotung Peninsula 11 April 1909 5 September 1909 16 November 1915 UNION POSTALE UNIYERSELLE ABRTE POSTALE CorresronneNnce ADDRESS = By aah et aid Roles Con Meme ab One ust In accordance with the peace treaty, the Japanese took over the rights to the leased territory from Russia. As in Korea, postmarks in English were introduced for use on intemational mail, but the Russian name of Dalny was changed to Dairen in the middle of 1909. RUSSO-JAPANESE AFTERMATH Dairen Lyaotung Peninsula 8 August 1919 4 September 1919 HOTEL, DAIREN. “TELEPHONE NO. 5001 (8 LINES). { 7 PBA LDL AOL pee rrr Later version of the canceler employed larger letters In the dial for greater legibility. RUSSO-JAPANESE AFTERMATH Lyaotung Peninsula = si a meme Se ean an, Se ip eens |{87 YAMAGATA-DORI 6}) - DAIREN Dairen 17 September 1923 7 June 1926 30 January 1933 3, be SSHIFRIN cam ? aare yy & EXPORT UNIVERSAL PROVIDER * = De 8 . ‘ oo PS be = Te iy ; In the mid-1920s, there was a transition at the Dairen post office to a smaller cds containing smaller letters. RUSSO-JAPANESE AFTERMATH Dairen Lyaotung Peninsula 12 October 1939 22 July 1940 oe so° — — © =o - “Shag Set . if wae aia a fasts TRADING COMPANY, LTp. - Dairen Messrs. Chryster Corp.e, 2 Export Division, smite Mssrs .Montgomery Ward. & 7S eS : ~ CHICAGO. lie ” Fee WI oe j Pp | U. 8. A. Lecaypas Z ‘ vy. % & . 5 Late version of international postmark for Dairen. Lower portion of cds is inscribed "I.N.P.O." (Imperial Nipponese Post Office). RUSSO-JAPANESE AFTERMATH Lyaotung Peninsula eee ee NRE Set Ree x RTE POSTALE s ft ADDRESS E A fee w7 Port Arthur 5 September 1911 NS b UNION POSTALE UNIVERSELLE “ SKS 17 July 1912 Port Arthur was maintained primarily as a naval base, so commercial mail is much less frequently encountered than from Dairen. Postmark on lower card is a sub-type without periods between the letters of "IJPO." Port Arthur 31 May 1935 RUSSO-JAPANESE AFTERMATH Lyaotung Peninsula 0 ess 2 ie 5 ESI re Se TES rae an talks _— TET LEG POLLED E AE AS Relb tea teal He | Lene nt EG ait nad te eo suey fe j “acre? Be oa. agar ae ee ae ae ; yt tee ag RQ eg te OCabs ot nde a | * > 6 ibe po Bee A | py get p08 ss eet tro nays ay a, 1208 RQ AIL 08 G GFE PB? ! Coe ete att tachi fa. 8 pyeye' SARA: oR te represents a most Insured money letter sent to China, which unusual usage. RUSSO-JAPANESE AFTERMATH Port Arthur Lyaotung Peninsula 7 November 1937 Sets ine as = Le, Sk e Cover from the Danish Mission in Port Arthur to the home country. RUSSO-JAPANESE AFTERMATH Mauka Sakhalin 24 August 1907 29 July 1911 ix i. "SS SN dit he N oS “mead © <5 Co Tea ad tim od Pe ee sae L .* JE vehe ¥ \¢ . CATHGEN RE =~ i * Stat Meee ee - seme Javcies +0 a P m | a a “ ts : fas, - fr ~ 1% ( Lt . ) q efter iy “ 3 £ WoeGiA —- cs , oS . = & ae -O8 , te 3S SR 7 ee Res vet o.-é : ie SS : aS \ sh We Ye N “\s re Div Ro = Bae oy ku Leg SBE ga Oe Yn is a Ay~ _ hs 4 ? NS} : S = A) .e fie Wo BER vR~A— ons 22s PEC efoot oy Wa oes Rn x -—o ~~ a i <| ' vo yy t Re Wa) ; od RGD at AD ay eae - SS-t roe & sos & QAR AAry s Vahey Na Yr i Sago | SSIs att eww auth pe as ew Sekt NECN AW) Bh esd Because Southern Sakhalin, which the Japanese had been forced to give up to Russia in 1875, was regarded as recovered territory, there was no need for concern about traditional spelling in postmarks. Japanese cancelers were introduced at the first opportunity and contained the name of the territory as Karafuto, without using the Russian name for the island. Sisuka 4 March 1930 RUSSO-JAPANESE AFTERMATH Sakhalin Toyohara 26 July 1931 Later version of the Japanese cancels, without "Karafuto” in the lower ring. RUSSO-JAPANESE AFTERMATH Maoka Sakhalin 27 December 1934 15 November 1935 MAOQKA, Mr W. M. Lester , #2010, Bancroft Way ; Ga-d-it-oe-o-t-a "YU, S. of AMERICA. MISSIO INDEPENDENS DE KARAFUTO (JAPONIA) AER ATK A a: oe Commemorative postmark used on "Karl Lewis" illustrated cover -- a very unusual example used from Sakhalin. Karafuto Sisuka RUSSO-JAPANESE AFTERMATH Sakhalin 28 August 1936 RANE | EU RUE OU MS Nog | “WEN Vom AEE BR) ER we ee * pee Bho MRGEY EI OKS Ky MRO Re Bos a GaN WIRES HOE AH EON (eet a6 ab PLM YIN, 3 3 — REE ee d ¢ iviag wdn rae ety Hy acl aoe, dee tet ot rg i} Be os octane EE Cae SE ik EN etek wh hd ELAS DS tS nso bd lh GDF At Bid als tatemse jhenre inc’ “Karafuto N. Lat. 50 Boundary Exploration" and dated two days before Picture post card with special handstamp posting. A very unusual usage. RUSSO-JAPANESE AFTERMATH Chishima Ushio Kurile Islands 18 April 1935 The Kurile Islands, known in Japanese as Chishima, lie between Hokkaido and the Kamchatka Peninsula and have been the subject of dispute between Japan and Russia for over a century. In 1875, the Japanese took possession of the islands in return for giving up their claim the the southem half of Sakhalin. However, as a result of the successful outcome of the war, they were able to exercise control over both territories (until Russia won them back in 1945). WORLD WAR I ‘Tsingtau Kiauchau 8 April 1915 16 April 1915 Nhe ee ys Ka ae te eT rpg te retainer VS ey ip : . pt rey TRS re: SPS UNION POSTALE UNIVERSEWLE |). *! pied . “Gh os ee . Foreign policy under the Taisho reign was less aggressive than it had been during the Meiji period. However, when World War broke out in Europe, the Japanese decided that they could seize the German territories in China and the Pacific Islands at little cost and declared war on Germany on 23 August 1914. An expeditionary corps was sent to the Shantung Peninsula where it attacked the German colony of Kiauchau on 2 September. The defenders were greatly oumumbered and surrendered on 7 November 1914. Under an agreement with Great Britain, Japan was assigned the task of capturing the German island colonies north of the Equator (Carolines, Marianas and Marshalls, except for Nauru) while the Australians and New Zealanders attacked those to the south (Nauru, New Guinea and Samoa). , WORLD WARI Tsingtau Kiauchau 7 November 1915 18 March 1916 ‘ “a. of (aeeesem: FEZIJLSTRA & [| ae TSINGTAU. Boennaa Llensypa. Civil mail was subject to payment of postage, with the stamps being those overprinted for the Japanese post offices in China at the rate of 10 sen for international letters. moo BOAR ae gat age =d ao NO mt As mé w Oa m & ae N= QE O§ oO eas, ee ra \ S S KS Nek Z| re apbeery,l Met, J. 4 3b. aE ae De, | Lh PRO Ah Ey Bs & i A 4 Lt, i -2L’ te by, sr 7 PR : ey me Raho ‘ $4. ter at foes: per h dS she besa tLe tof pe a. tee rn ar OGEA a. Leds WORLD WARI FEN Sth anche , Wate) the Porm geet AL fed} gz cor apa putt oa Hmsaitl aa 5 Cake. Bocofic Ge “ feerfrroefl fa A 5 é Pom Goi tl sreaherc, 4G 4a 0 Ooombe. Bae B45 aN rey Oy beet S|: Theres: Sata Raa ea FTP ot ee at, ty A sf, °, 2 a es Ee en ete tee tet cae Fate greene eet Te = ee ee ee Mail could even be sent to Germany by civilians in Kiauchau in 1916, presumably with a Trans-Pacific routing and across the United States, which was still neutral at that time. Mail sent by the Shantung Railway Administration wa post (above card from a member of the 1st Company at WORLD WARI Kiauchau moe galeWwar 424147, », TSINGTAO, CHINA — SHAN GHAI.” Catan teat Ist wo gp ee BY Fe Sah [nes iize ae’ oe 3 Hs ye ee ee as aS ese a. et UN Ree ASS SSL oes CARTE, POSTAL Re SR See SE} . RSE SE SETS WERE Seb eS ea nF F pera get AES ok ee ee man Fee ae oo Tsingtau 18 December 1917 12 December 1919 enn ig gee s treated as official correspondence and it, as well as field Asahi Barracks) could be sent unfranked. WORLD WARI Tsingtau Kiauchau 28 May 1919 28 October 1919 an < AhP.0. TSH rt tee A special censorship marking in English was introduced for international mail, shown above in bright carmine and orange ink. This marking was only in use for a short time and is very elusive. WORLD WARI Ponape Caroline Islands 7 October 1914 11 December 1915 One _ a oe we, 7 “A Le a, See ae BL ptigeall. wast Cw“ 4 Se As agreed with the other Allies, Japan sent naval expeditionary forces to capture the German Pacific Island colonies north of the Equator. There was no resistance and the takeover of the Carolines on 7 October 1914 went~ smoothly. Mail from this campaign is scarce and sought after by both German and Japanese collectors. Card above is considered to be a souvenir of the first day of the Japanese administration. The "I.J.O. Ponape’ typewritten on the stamp on the cover is unofficial. The postmark reads "Ponape/Imperial Naval Post Office." WORLD WARI - Ponape Caroline Islands 14 July 1916 == So ee ee (we a dade Ames’ ee Apeveadc hats oc ff ~~ A yey = —. Deutf che Reichbspoft _ ° : fom, CL tal (571 \ saat oe eA ert bidity * $2 © | ESSE) pofttarte. t _: — An ’ =F errr Deutfoland poe 7 contend Wattage ee : & {> SS OT ae a Ones) (eC. ese. Se EE aac y & Sty ant ae : : 2 Dofttabegs Le helel f + Weltpoftverei a : ~ 4 _ & PSiay WN “i | _ oT ae : 2 Carte postale avec reponse payce— Union postale nfs 1 Ce 5 ne : = Ege et cinetie ret a pei Prone = = ee, “te e e: : 2 LAP Lo Ce nee. en = 7 EN ae oe Le spcocs aol _ stata a Occasionally, philatelically-produced items involving the typewritten "I.J.O. Ponape" and new value in sen on stamps and postal stationery of the German Carolines are encountered. These was apparently tolerated locally by the Naval Officer Commanding but discontinued at the request of the Department of Communications. They should be regarded only as souvenirs of the occupation. WORLD WARI Ponape 16 October 1916 Caroline Islands 21 July 1917 Otto Reimers & Co. Yokohama. ~lBah. a. - = = & & Upper cover shows commercial mail from the Carolines to Japan. Lower example shows postage-free registered cover to a German sailor from 5S.M.S. Jaguar, then a POW at Narashino Camp in Japan, an extremely unusual usage unseen previously by the exhibitor. WORLD WAR I Ponape Caroline Islands 30 July 1920 Censored field post cover from Ponape/Imperial Naval Post Office. Unusual inter-unit military mail from member of South Pacific Defense Corps, Ponape (per retum address on reverse) to soldier of the 51st Regiment, 6th Company in Mie, Japan. Truk WORLD WARI 18 April 1916 Caroline Islands eG - eS ae a Truk-Station der Jaluit-Gesellschafi, Truk. - Es apf = ae | | Sree Mg wes a ee eee ec ee Ft ee Unusual example of commercial registered cover to Japan. Postmark reads "Truk/Imperial Naval Post Office." WORLD WARI Truk Caroline Islands 6 May 1918 14 July 1919 A a tee “ ‘ - ‘ rs ye a Military covers with Gunji Yubin (to secure free franking) and censor markings in vermilion. Both ar postmarked Truk/Imperial Naval Post Office. Cover on right has retum address on reverse of "Ship Post Office Mogami, c/o Yokosuka." WORLD WARI Yap Caroline Islands 1 May 1916 Soo, eer = West-KAROLINEN GESELLSCHAFT M.B.H. JAP. |p. | am | i | { 2 hey Vis UOaiae iy es) | Fritz Werner ESyre, — . — c/° Imperial German Legation, ) ap | RR “EXE ENG. qe oi ] : o 4 AL bel China. 5 i! Hol? | a 4} 4 oe ee Unusual example of commercial registered cover to China. Postmark reads "Yap/Imperial Naval Post Office.” WORLD WARI Yap Caroline Islands 4 July 1919 frgeiet ee eee =e OFFICIAL BUSENESS. . Registered mail from Postmaster M. Yamamoto at "Yap/Imperial Naval Post Office” to Switzerland. Palau 3 January 1921 WORLD WARI Caroline Islands Soe nie ie v wy for military mail during the in use ined hich rema Ww postmark, tt Cover with the "Palau/Imperial Naval Post Office early postwar period. Saipan WORLD WARI 18 June 1919 Marianas Islands Avi , + aaah Office, ¥ekehama. | erbicnposisras, 477 LY “Leech Daapthe ae F 4 A " 2moa ae : ONT Ln ee a 7 : : Le Dende = we? a a i A mi! fj : ~~ aes ‘ AY 4 | wo . a ! . * eh { ' ” bo saat | iii DN} DH) Ys Aas ? yy The Japanese naval expeditionary force arrived in the Marianas on 14 October 1914 and was able to take possession without incident. Above cover has registry label and postmark inscribed "Saipan/Imperial Naval Post Office." indication of registration added in transit at Yokohama. Manuscript WORLD WAR I . Jaluit Marshall Islands 13 January 1917 age et oe As in the case of the other German Pacific possessions, Japan sent a naval expeditionary force to capture the Marshalls. Again, there was no resistance and the takeover was effected on 29 September 1914, Mail from this campaign is particularly elusive. WORLD WARI Marshall Islands Jaluit 1 June 1918 Unusual use of Australian stamps overprinted for the N.W. Pacific Islands from a territory held by the Japanese; even though philatelically inspired, no other example is known to the exhibitor. The cover has the and postmark of the "Jaluit/Imperial Naval Post Office." registry label WORLD WARI AFTERMATH Shanghai China 1 July 1919 Japan : Tokyo 1 July 1919 = MTP ENTE ress ee Tp ne er : ’} [eee cee aes radi ff ¥ iat rete HE LN I We Following the successful completion - of the war, a set of four values was => = ==, issued and a special postmark. =. ©. _+ provided on 1 July 1919 to == ©: . commemorate the peace. These = ~ stamps were valid for postage in both Japan proper and the post offices in China. . WORLD WARI AFTERMATH Vienna Austria 8 February 1921 r O. Mignot Gallois. Vienre Antriché-~~_ . es g-DELEGATIQN DU. JAPON@3 4 Se aN COMMISSION. AERONSUTIQUE -< pees co INTERALLIFE-, .) facie Vo “DE CONTROLE EN, AOTRICHE yer ee OF Z "ER, EN HONGRIES™ $ PN eet « Ba wt . NN. 4 ae ae AS ar _ MONSI&UR ERNEST GALLOIS , Chef de Subdivision _ cope yep yyraicl nggleencgues - S.M.Gallois Del. “Jasonaise Vienne Autriche. _ “COMMISSION MERONAUNIQUE F INTERALLIEE ° ’ DE CONTROLE EN AUTRICHE . . —xg-— a Lo. Monsieur Ernest GALLOIS < “3 Chef de Subdivision a *fS2 fvtirtsten » FRESNE EN WOEVER EFRANKREICH .. — (upusz) - i eine Although it took no part in the fighting in Europe, Japan was nominally represented on some of the control commissions set up on former enemy territory. Above covers are from the Japanese Delegation of the Interallied Aeronautical Control Commission in Austria. Note that Japan appears to be represented by a Monsieur Gallois, obviously a Frenchman. y WORLD WAR I AFTERMATH Budapest Hungary 16 March 1922 Back of cover from the Japanese Delegation of the Interallied Control Commission in Hungary. Little can be added to what is shown above, but it is the only example of mail from this group ever seen by the exhibitor. WORLD WARI AFTERMATH Allenstein: Allenstein 29 April 1920 23 July 1920 See STN D \ vst ; STEIN | e The token representation of Japan in some of the postwar supervisory activities in Europe is further illustrated by the above examples of mail to the Japanese Delegation to the Plebiscite Commission in Allenstein. WORLD WARI AFTERMATH Saarbricken Saar 7 January 1921 Verlag von \Emil' Hartmann, Manobeim\ --—-—--—————-— ss 1A BE SiGe Picture post card of Saarbriicken sent by Lt. Col. Kobayashi, Japanese Commissioner of the body responsible for the border delimitation between the Saar Basin and Germany proper. It is the only recorded example of Japanese mail from the Saar (per Sinais). WORLD WAR I AFTERMATH Tsingtau Kiauchau 5 August 1920 mgt oe ore eens DT See er ence An example of free franking in the postwar period, this summer greetings card was sent by a member of the Civil Affairs Department of the Tsingtau Garrison Force to Yamagata Prefecture. Postmark of the 9th year of the Taisho reign. WORLD WAR I AFTERMATH Tsingtau Kiauchau 19 January 1920 25 May 1922 SE PS = a See ae ec Sn At the end of the war, the IJPO in Kiauchau introduced an English version of the postmark, comparable to those used in the other Japanese post offices in China. Kiauchau was not assigned to Japan under the peace agreement, and the other Allies insisted that the territory be retumed to China, which was done on 10 December 1922. Pon a es Rg, sth Pica aE , WORLD WAR I AFTERMATH Ponape Caroline Islands 7 October 1919 ' See pte eee oe . ~ j 1 ’ ~ i, 7 . : . ~ . pars CID , Weltpostkarte — Carte Postale ! Vonage ie h~10. 1943 fi i ma Sp er / ; BS x Fg oe 7% | cs Seng th Exe : Ly Dnt 2- hb a oe aoe ek Ags Ce A ahaa De ty | on : ye oS » Sf, af LV pren cPLEber S coal ed Irth Dp Get : fe | Sf ff, © ettiie EAH 4 fs v ; ; ha Ge . fe , Lo Oe fret J, Ctr Moby AUENE ELL fo. . . tA - a J L fe 5 we - yy ge ; t S fo , Pa Fett ee Be AEL| fe “Lz ttt ~ tte LE SE, Ze pF thee esi 1 ar ork eteu aaNet L ¢ 4 ef) Chey fms, i Ll. Yoh’ Bt Mee | (rte These cards, written in 1914, were apparently in the Ponape post office awaiting a mail steamer at the time of the Japanese invasion on 7 October and then held by the authorities until mail service to Belgium was restored in 1919. At that point, they were postmarked with the Japanese cds for the 8th year, 10th month of the Taisho reign and forwarded. The German Colonial postage was accepted, but the u underpaid and marked “T" for postage due. Received in Belgium a month later. pper card with only a 5 pf, stamp was WORLD WAR I AFTERMATH Truk Caroline Islands 6 August 1930 Picture post card mailed to Yokohama with scene showing canoe race at Truk on reverse. Postmark of Truk/#1 Ship Post Office. Yap 1918-1919 WORLD WARI AFTERMATH Caroline Islands is the ary piece blue at bottom but an extraordin . Markings in red read in tion king al Sta to Yap Meteorologic hic Money Order. Mar Tap -31." No postmarks, so cover cannot be dated specifically, "South Sea Agency in box) Teleg Communications Business, Registered and ( Internal official registered cover from regis tration number "Yap C of postal history. WORLD WARI AFTERMATH Palau Caroline Islands 1 July 1928 8 September 1931 Germany yet 4 Herrn Superintendent Sehlaeger tA Neururvoin “8 te Reg. Potsdan Superintendentur N + oe Z - z ~4 Special commemorative post card and postmark for the 10th anniversary of the establishment of the South Seas Islands Administration, showing portrait of Emperor Hirohito and scenes superimposed on a map of the territory, which was at that time a Japanese mandate under the League of Nations. Cover is an example of commercial use from a missionary on Palau to Germany. WORLD WARI AFTERMATH Truk Caroline Islands 21 October 1938 Cover with insignia of the N.Y.K. Shipping Line on reverse and promotion for 1940 Olympic Games in Tokyo (cancelled because of the war) on front. WORLD WAR I AFTERMATH Yap Caroline Islands 1918-1919 Internal official registered cover from "South Sea Agency" to Yap Meteorological Station. Markings in red read Communications Business, Registered and (in box) Telegraphic Money Order. Marking in blue at bottom is the registration number "Yap C-31." No postmarks, so cover cannot be dated specifically, but an extraordinary piece of postal history. i WORLD WARI AFTERMATH Yap Caroline Islands 16 August 1938 Mr. Thomas P, Podlas, 242 Columbia Ave. ry Irvington, N.J. J ow. 8. AERICA Cover sent to known philatelist in the U.S., but mail from the mandated islands in this period is elusive. WORLD WARI AFTERMATH Marshall Islands [tof Ree . . , oo . —— a _. uot . WMararcedA prt » » . a nO ; St. Paul, Minn. Ue. 8. 2. 3013 | cine | s eT Fi Yeta, |S HUZOH AMS | ip’ Noa 554 [5 Claude Neine,, = Jeluit, > Zersnall Islands. 23 =f ‘fi 5 tee : / dontgomery Word _& Gis" bsdtiene = * Fen Chicago, Til zk ‘ . & Sry a \ Se U. S.A. ON Jaluit 8 June 1927 21 January 1929 Examples of commercial registered mail to the United States. Upper cover has Japanese postmark and registration label, while lower one has English postmark and manuscript indication of registration. WORLD WARI AFTERMATH Marianas Islands \\ nn aN t En oe AK A Tt Bs + | oe | _ Se aasyesa } *) CePLde wise: ee eee ee wat og ss Faas | ae (45) = eee ig! Scarce example of commercially used 2 sen postal card from Saipan to Echigo, Japan. Saipan 16 August 1940 Tinian 3 April 1941 WORLD WARI AFTERMATH Marianas Islands und overweight mail to Tinian franked with 68 sen postage. (After U.S. forces occupied 3 July 1944, this envelope was found and examined by the American censor.) Unusual example of inbo the island on 2 SIBERIAN INTERVENTION Japanese Commandant, Vladivostok Unit Handstamps Vladivostok Railway Station Soa Ss it ee “fs _AMOCHIM, OME "BARTS CT. BilcduBOCcTOKS silting Riki summalb i? se Aeibaii ime seco. = pas _ Japan's intervention in Siberia began in August 1918 and initially involved three Separate commands deploying a total of four divisions. Each of the two major divisions had its own field post system but these were combined into the Vladivostok Communications Service on 1 April 1919. By the time of Japanese withdrawal from Siberia in October 1922, between 70,000 and 80,000 men had served in the theatre. Numbered field post offices from 1 to 30 were authorized, but #18, 19, 20 and 30 never opened, and no examples of FPO 27 are recorded. Unit handstamps are very unusual on mail of the JSEF. To Japan To Local Civilian To Another Soldier SIBERIAN INTERVENTION Soldiers’ Free Frank . ne * — “De BOs Way iets! Ange os x 2, \ i. : at SINE LR wh Lf RENT et pot A eS, VETOED Pence : %, > is ie (f ‘ = sey Sl Tae Fo ‘ \ ne . ap : = PKA) sorted sat fn e } va 4 i | 4 : My di seats — ocicase: pil tec a 4, - hy TURES RI PLAS re NR : oe ee . } : oS eR each ete ett nett ORE a cet yor vm ngs ey ingly, the Russians even accepted the troops seem to have preferred Vladivostok. In general frank for cards and letters mailed to Japan and within the theatre of _ to send post cards, so covers are an order of magnitude scarcer than cards. "Gunji yubin" (military mail). Surpris unfranked mail from soldiers to Japanese civilians in Japanese soldiers were given the free operations, so long as they were marked Nikolsk Military Police Squad SIBERIAN INTERVENTION Censorship Pe ©“ OWFOHU TOLIdaLO ps bearing the characters for \\.2 78 "ATVLSOd ALYVD 's personal chop to signify censorship, and some mail g. Less common are handstam censored." The elaborate handstamp of the MPs at Nikolsk is most unusual. The typical JSEF soldier's letter or card bears only an officer was obviously processed without any markin " SIBERIAN INTERVENTION ---- August 1920 Special Stationery FPO 1 - 11 July 1921 FPO 10- 1 January 1921 NR SE RRND AL BRE RE to cere %# + TBR RY ee ee ee ee ee Although postage was free, there were several types of imprinted stationery issued to the troops in Siberia. Surprisingly, the upper card has "Post Card" in English. The other two items shown were issued by the Japanese YMCA, with the envelope being much scarcer than the card. SIBERIAN INTERVENTION ---- 15 April 1920 Special Stationery FPO 3 - 6 October 1921 FPO 10 - 11 July 1922 Fe NS we ems tee on, S p(t BR KK ou Ae For convenience and in order to secure the free franking privilege, a wide variety of Gunji yubin stationery was produced for the troops. Above are examples of "Safe Arrival" formula card and post card and letter sheet with similar indicium (artillery and battle flags). SIBERIAN INTERVENTION IJNS Nisshin Naval Mail 10 July 1922 peste ees St SS Fp oy Card from a sailor on the Nisshin, with ship name in. return address, care of Tsuruga post office. Text reads "summer greetings from Vladivostok" to a fellow sailor aboard JJNS Oi. Naval mail from the intervention force ~ is particularly scarce. SIBERIAN INTERVENTION May 1921 Incoming Mail ae 2 Set SA ie os Ini ike Fa = a, as i oh UU ie oh Bill bil Mail from Japan to the troops in Siberia was allowed to be sent at domestic rates. Above card is addressed to a member of the 7th Infantry, 9th Division, Vladivostok Expeditionary Force. SIBERIAN INTERVENTION Pervaya Rechka POW Camps Xd td 18 SR e . x " _ oth res = : 5 ° . ees en : oe —_ og papsomnprgy mg capwtagty hese c “3 ° r Be ce | = “gost. BE.- | . cane is. i) Yeututos- Iheish ~ Lartsihedsty 144 i TR, Bil ce caus : - Ce ee _. a a The Japanese administered three camps in Siberia containing former POWs from the Austro-Hungarian and German armies, at Nikolsk Ussurisk, Pervaya Rechka and Krasnaya Rechka. Special censor markings were used with Japanese/Russian inscriptions. SIBERIAN INTERVENTION Manchuria Harbin 11 January 1919 The Japanese Kwangtung Government General opened a post office at Harbin in March 1918. Military mail sent through this office was permitted free franking, as was the case with the above Gunji yubin card from the Harbin Military Hospital. SIBERIAN INTERVENTION Official Mail Manchuria 18 October 1919 Shihei Gai 1 January 1919 ee, FA? Sa eee pees Er SER oe od Large cover is official pa o | ~ mail from the No.3 hem, ‘i Company of the 26th ‘hing 2 , ar So ' Cavalry Regiment in . Manchuria, one of only ne . \ three examples known of A | such usage. Post card bee ; shows the only example ar: . of machine postmarking te / i of military mail in this ce { period seen by the “ exhibitor. \ SISERIAN INTERVENTION ~ .- Hoten Manchuria 4 January 1920 Shinkyo 10 October 1920 Japanese forces were stationed in various parts of Manchuria in connection with the Siberian Intervention. Post card is New Year's greeting from soldier in No.2 Guard Company. Cover is from Communications Company, Manchuria Detached Army. SIBERIAN INTERVENTION FPO 1- 1 May 1919 Rotation of Forces FPO 1 - 10 May 1920 FPO 10- 11 April 1921 Tan Le are cea Between 1 April and late July 1919, the 3rd, 7th and 12th Divisions were replaced by the 5th, 16th and 14, Divisions, respectively. Subsequently, the 13th Division was also sent to Siberia. The new divisions were in tum replaced in 1921 by the 9th, 11th and (elements of the) 8th Divisions. First card above postmarked four days after the writer had left for Japan. Second card has formula imprint on reverse indicating safe arrival in Vladivostok. Third example states "we are due to be replaced today." | SIBERIAN INTERVENTION FPO 2 - 12 September 1922 Departure Japanese advances in mainland Siberia ended in March 1919 and a series of pull-backs began in February 1920. Under pressure from the other Allies, withdrawal of Japanese forces began to be seriously considered in July 1921, and was officially announced in June 1922. The first units pulled out on 26 August and evacuation was completed on 24 October 1922. Message on above card states "we will be leaving Nikolsk on the 15th, will stay in Vladivostok... and will board ship on 4 October." SIBERIAN INTERVENTION FPO 1 8 January 1920 FPO 2 19 September 1920 is sorte he Dat ne ale FPO 1 operated at Vladivostok for its entire period of service from 14 August 1918 to 24 October 1922. FPO 2 was located at Nikolsk from 21 August 1918 to 16 September 1922, except for a few weeks at Spasskoye in the latter part of 1918. SIBERIAN INTERVENTION FPO 3 20 October 1918 28 July 1922 me ob Ge C A + Envelope above used at Alekseievsk, where FPO 3 operated from 27 September 1918 to 29 February 1920. Post card used during the period the post office was located at Shkotovo (until closing on 1 October 1922). SIBERIAN INTERVENTION FPO 4 7 November 1918 19 May 1919 pow cee nt eens eee se ee ee ee ne Peery FPO 5 1 January 1922 et Vesa . ee. ee mere g _ - x f A A , — : BS angers AE Bee a “pe Ne ” I . aS wD cS fe h 72 “a a =e Se Ae A L£ x 5, Se, fs orpeirae 17 2 g apan sd! . Nas Post card and overprinted lettersheet from FPO 4 during its location at Khabarovsk from 11 September 1918 to 15 October 1920. Lower card from FPO 5 located at Pogranichnaia (11 September 1920 to 9 September 1922). SIBERIAN INTERVENTION FPO 6 27 May 1921 FPO 7 24 July 1919 21 August 1921 soe Ce aa eee ge 2 & " ae | Bs - y vB \Z whi! ahmed aa i iF ? Ate . wt TAREE Tv TKR : = % WY < 4 i ~ Y Ly ge p e_, Ean ® ie bo Fa : Hi 4) - 's t ZR : ke {F f peg. ete HS 3: ft : KN 2 oF An a aE | 4 8 a a RE BD | PS ALT boo PR ep ay Ae yy a) Upper post card from FPO 6 located at Razdolnoye from 11 September 1920 to 1 October 1922; YMCA card from FPO 7 at Manchouli (16 September 1918 to 4 October 1922) and lower card from Slovyanka (15 September 1920 to 4 October 1922). SIBERIAN INTERVENTION . FPO 8 6 April 1921 FPO 9 27 October 1918 28 August 1921 or ag eg NY Poop ep aged Se we a ET ES net me a ene = SABER NS hy (Ys bs 4 — e 7 Ssibe es \ a EH RS ca eo itty see. SSE Renee \- PSS Rete ob tends Upper post card from FPO 8 located at Chita from 22 September 1918 to 14 August 1920. Middle card from FPO 9 at Verkhne Udinsk (13 October 1918 to 28 February 1920) and lower card from Nibangawa (15 June 1920 to 22 October 1922). SIBERIAN INTERVENTION Newole FPO 10 1 January 1921 FPO 11 30 December 1918 31 August 1921 yi ce, 7 ad 5 K, ok : Ss Upper post card from FPO 10 located at Spasskoye from 21 September 1919 to 1 September 1922, Middle card from FPO 11 at Ushumun (28 October 1918 to 17 April 1919) and lower card from I-mien-po (11 December 1920 to 10 September 1922). SIBERIAN INTERVENTION FPO 12 16 November 1918 FPO 13 19 July 1919 att St fenth KE Long envelope from FPO 12 located at Blagoveshchensk from 12 October 1918 to 2 March 1920. Shorter envelope used from FPO 13 at Zeya (20 May 1919 to 16 February 1920). 38 58 (SEWERS - < We eee Crease

Chred ~ fale Q a FPO 50 was located at Aleksandrovsk, the principal city on the Russian half of the island. The free frank for troops of the Sakhalin Expeditionary Force for mail to Japan lasted until 6 June 1925. FPO 50 also served the needs of civilians, who were required to pay domestic rates for mail to Japan. SIBERIAN INTERVENTION FPO 51 Sakhalin 19 July 1923 Detached FPO 51 1 January 1922 a “NY SN A C aN mS Q eo By Ss oe NA As EAWerd BS La, a s ~~ ee —- hee _ FAA ERR EAT edu Eee TS Gr cesusycsp Bie a saeeucueamng eee oaens Al taseheno’ FPO 51 was located at Raikov, North Sakhalin. The lower card from Detached FPO 51 has the retum address of the Tymov Agricultural Experiment Station. SIBERIAN INTERVENTION ; FPO 33 Sakhalin 1 January 1922 1 January 1925 An o ; =, : wv + as ae - we ee me % Se % Oe: 7 - A fe; “ See one oo seen ong a een em ne ms er Pa em Sp ty Sy OBTDNNO NG PbO ODD OD eds na, vl, + <@. 2 nee Bie yee aE “ge Cee ' a sy | we . =3 Ase we. “LN: (ef i l Wastes Gace Gk, Gee eee ce ce FPO 53 was actually located at De-kastri on the Siberian mainland. However, it was operated in conjunction with the Sakhalin Expeditionary Force and, thus, is normally grouped with those activities. The lower card is one of the latest recorded pieces of mail from the Siberian intervention. SIBERIAN INTERVENTION FPO 54 Sakhalin 31 July 1921 FPO 54 was initially located at Nikolayevsk on the Siberian mainland (the site of the massacre which prompted the occupation of Northern Sakhalin). However, it was relocated to the island after the evacuation of mainland Siberia. On 15 May 1925, the last Japanese forces left Russian territory. CONCESSION REINFORCEMENT Field Post Office No.1 Shanghai Incident 28 April 1932 ' Following the death of Sun Yat-Sen in 1925, political unrest intensified inside China due to the struggle for power between the Nationalists and Communists. The fighting spread into many areas, including Shanghai and other . cities. Mindful of the problems caused by the Boxers a quarter century earlier, several of the great powers sent forces to protect their citizens and property in the international settlements. , Japanese reinforcements sent to Shanghai were served by FPO No.1, which operated from 8 March to the end of May 1932. Message above reads "...since the 21st, our company has seen the first action and there were several soldiers killed, but I escaped injury." An unusual usage from a short-lived military P.O. Military Mail MANCHURIAN INCIDENT The Address Only to be Writte: aw aw Ss. cee ra for ‘Communication _ Go ae CW Harbin 22 February 1932 Mukden 1 July 1932 (< an La shy | how's tons 2 EASY ( — J SE¥dy |X L NO a 2 e , . a a ae, i = , | AY, 5 SK p= ery Tens A Losey 3 XS J? J. ; oe p REGAERE | REG Ges Bw UW On 18 September 1931, an allegedly Chinese bomb explosion on the South Manchurian Railway near Mukden provided the incident (Manshu Jihen) triggering the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. Within a few months, most. . of the strategic centers were occupied and the territory came under Japanese military rule. A Chinese protest to the League of Nations resulted in the appointment of an investigatory commission whose report was unfavorable to the Japanese. Japan then withdrew from the League but continued to occupy Manchuria until 1945. TES 6) SOS Her Harbin 18 July 1933 Shanhaikuan 9 January 1934 MANCHURIAN INCIDENT Military Mail Aves SSI ae, EREe- yaa pene aig : Re me oe SAL “s oH Dee. = AER, Perc ee ae | Be ABET one | HL RERS Paps oN WES sy SPNYBAR A SS : xe. Masse A Deh At 7 ee PRES Ne | YAR’ ap Se Qs RP HORE 4 Lg | ARE sdenvoess BST eae BOE] 2 > oe Be pete sat | gue se beeris Oe Soaks SNH us ee Military mail from the early years of the occupation can be easily identified by the postmarks. Those most often encountered are from the largest population centers -- Mukden (Hoten) and Harbin (Fengtien). Manshu MANCHURIAN INCIDENT Military Mail 1 January 1937 Harbin Branch No.2 27 September 1938 Mukden 15 March 1941 ea4 ON ~. ° SP ED ab any 1 PI5 328 O93 gaq . i enfra) « . a 4 idea sates elton tn Sloe Sa x A eee os Upper card mailed as a New Year's greeting from a soldier in North Manchuria to a compatriot on Tinian in the Mariana Islands mandated territory. Middle card is unusual in that although it has a proper Military Mail (Gunji Yubin) cachet in red, it is franked with.a 2 fen stamp. Its postmark is of the 2nd Harbin FPO, a branch office actually located at Tsitsihar, some 180 miles away. Lower card has machine postmark with small leaf at the bottom of the circle, often used in markings of the Japanese POs in the South Manchurian Railway zone. Manshu MANCHURIAN INCIDENT undated Military Mail we Mae ¢ ies ee oe a rages os » a \ aed NS SHA al i> En Sy SQ = wey (9 aa ae 7 Ds ae RY 7 = RS ; had : .. = \- & SS hs\ SAX * ha “ds eis oti ly Bis is ee ad S WAQWN TRY i t | 1 | i | {| } | al RH EN it CY FR TE BEEN EN te ' ! ; Las ny tefl? Seyi ya 4 ao i ; i 7 yy Ute és aon Cpe As «oy Bi .2 Gs At es In addition to the three initial provinces of Manchuria which were occupied in 1931, the neighboring Jehol Province was invaded in 1933, bringing Japanese forces right up to the Great Wall. In order to control this large territory, a significant military presence was maintained in Manchuria until the Soviet invasion in August 1945. Upper card is undated but mailed from a member of the 646th unit stationed at Mutankiang in extreme northeast Manchuria to a compatriot in the nearby town of Kiamusze. Middle and lower cards are typical undated field post cards originating with the forces in Manchuria, being from units designated 871st and 318th, respectively. Harbin 7 December 1932 MANCHURIAN INCIDENT Manchu State Moukden 24 April 1933 Se ee Mir. C, A. Howes on, eS nee Board of Fire Undervriters, Inc. - CUKGE 40 Broad Street [ — seat oT UGH, #0 Seon Stee FT ic A & Boston = | ANA] No, 1686 | | Early in 1932 the Japanese authorities set up anew goverment of Manchukuo (Manchu State) with Henry Pu-yi, a former emperor of China deposed by the 1912 revolution as chief executive. The first stamps issued on 26 July 1932 were inscribed with five characters at the top, reading "Manchu State Postal Administration." MANCHURIAN INCIDENT Pinkiang (Harbin) Manchu State 29 December 1932 Harbin 28 April 1935 The Chinese authorities refused to recognize the govemment of Manchukuo and placed an embargo against the use of the stamps. Treatment of the mail seems to have varied over time. The upper cover was regarded as unfranked and taxed upon arrival (two 5 cent postage dues affixed on reverse) in Peking on 4 January 1933. Lower cover at printed matter rate went through the mails as indicated by Shanghai receiving mark on reverse but was not taxed. However, the name of the originating post office was blacked out by the Chinese officials. MANCHURIAN INCIDENT Harbin Pristan Manchu Empire 25 August 1937 Moukden - 6 February 1939 cmom DVS QARRE TT Yo Were City CANK oF WY ADDRESS city HA RB state IAN EHY ud 18th ‘and Dougias Streets i Premium Division Accounting Dept. . OMAHA, NEBR. oF e27009090000 On 1 March 1934 Pu-yi was proclaimed Emperor Kang Teh. The creation of the empire required that the stamps be reissued with proper nomenclature. This time the inscription had six characters at the top, reading "Imperial Manchu Postal Administration." MANCHURIAN INCIDENT ‘Manchu Empire Rime . - ee, LL. TSCHURIN & Co. HEAD OFFICE HARBIN CNew Town). .- ik Messrs. The Far Eastern Review, . Yokohama Specie Bank Bldg., #K - 24 The Bund, FE . Shanghai. ay ST GS ESS STALL aT re Da oe Saree We Tee Re . : — : CONSULAT DE FRANCE . im 7 . MOUKDEN ‘ eG Pos Ne Birtles they } nips areas : } ' i yess teen, a Duh, Shwe Seal: gp awe: Baie ees eu es Gee a ee Te, Ga <4 eed: 6 BERW eSEROMn we Harbin 10 May 1937 Mukden 17 January 1939 orem be Because of the high level of commerce with Manchukuo, the Chinese needed a reason to end the embargo. A compromise was reached with the restoration of full postal service as of 16 January 1935, providing that special stamps were used. These depicted the orchid crest of Manchukuo but did not show the name of the country. Above examples used on registered mail to Shanghai and Tientsin. Nan-Shih Chang MANCHURIAN INCIDENT Manchu Empire 7 February 1940 ee f , \ ofa \ . Bem ¢ i : : r ° Ay. ; 5 5 A Se : ‘ : | a, . . ‘ 4 7 es js VELOGIG UIA i / a aa . weet vactah o. @ ae . 9, fe. ¥ Pd athe ant Singh ae ea: ; ye he gu PR Sheng sealable wad at PRR RY A Peron er sonny ON: | MG ef ‘ att ! oP RANA Pa EER ? ANAC COE Registered envelope sent to Kassa, in the area of Hungary that had been recently liberated from the Slovaks; a most unusual destination. Re-registered with English-language label during transit of Harbin on 13 February. wtmny CINALS|OAY,:. »- MANCHURIAN INCIDENT Koshan Manchu Empire 24 June 1939 Soo, Yenki @GRICU Uo PERIMENT Statroon. 30 September 1940 KoO-SHAN dita OAURTA, United States Government Printing Office, Division of Public Documents, Aa he) Washington, D. C. U. S. A. Via Nippon. H 7 s£8) America” "s Prospect av. 2 w. (Sobre tyaUESe, Wis A new set of pictorial stamps was issued in 1936-37. Above examples used on commercial mail to the U.S.A. MANCHURIAN INCIDENT Harbin Manchu Empire 12 January 1941 Moukden \ 31 May 1941 Be eee aa, . + 2 tO: | \ | RE | \s Registered covers sh Census of 1940 and National Conscri owing use of commemoratives for the visit of Emperor Kang Teh to Emperor Hirohito, the ption. Such usage on commercial mail is unusual. CHINESE INCIDENT Military Mail — North China undated / ety oe Ma ae t AS _ 7 soars oe DT oa A oad RS ote cnd. oe | On the night of 7 July 1937, a minor clash between Japanese and Chinese troops at the Marco Polo Bridge near Peking provided the incident (Shina Jihen) which touched off the full-scale invasion of China proper. During the - 8-year struggle, in spite of nearly complete command of the air and sea and the occupation of most of North China and large chunks of Central and South China, including most of the coastal area and the largest cities, Japan was unable to quell the Chinese resistance. This campaign became a part of the general war against the Allies in World War I, and all of the Chinese territory was evacuated when Japan surrendered in 1945. As was common practice at the time, most of the field post cards used in this campaign were not postmarked. However, retum addresses typically show “North China Expedition" and some additional clues may be provided in the text. As illustrated,a wide variety of censorship chops was provided. CHINESE INCIDENT Military Mail > 1 ~ so - ) cur ARLES “ %, AG I A AG 4 Due to the participation of large numbers of troops in the. campaign, military mail is relatively common. However,the bulk of it is unpostmarked. As a result, such few clues as can be gleaned from the text as to location and date are very welcome. Upper card was sent from A.P.O. 4 in North China by a lieutenant who was an Army pharmacist. Lower card is also from North China Haken and is dated 13 December but without any designation of the year. CHINESE INCIDENT North China Military Mail undated Tientsin 1 April 1940 omen tem eee eee rh By YY = - te * [6 YEE AWG Wis i ~B ee sy % Re / z { IN pt i Bh) af Zin W ae) ae me Og ap l JERS <1 "ep ~* (FA, / 4 page r WO * Rey / ay me ty Oe ce cage hogs Sad ) . ! q ce Tbs ei vibe sy Ny iy ce SE Je Military post card and official mail cover from the forces involved in the invasion of North China, the latter with 30 sen stamp paying the surcharge for air mail. CHINESE INCIDENT Henan North China 1941 { 7 \t i acme ~ ~ i 2 | Pr. * ° : 7 as 2 ms rR f le te Se On 1 July 1941, the Japanese occupation authorities issued the first stamps for the five provinces of North China under their control at that time. These sets consisted of the name of the province overprinted on Chinese stamps from the Martyrs and Sun Yat-sen series. Such issues were replaced with a common set for use in all of North China in the following year. Hopei CHINESE INCIDENT 1941 North China Q2AaAnRTIiBHR THE TEXAS COMPANY (CHINA) LTD. INC. U.S.A. PEKING —o e Ge Folts, ESO. sandard Vacuum O11 Comran} singtao r3 00 ty FORM CH-427 om 5 se ; apr, a PAOTING, HOPE], CHINA ide RE RS MENT = SN Ate ST gogo Sehr , =o © ae = tie _— Anes, As Turner oo Gene a . 7 3 . , ‘ . E agaist Be te ee os aoe = , te te FT \ Please forward. ae — Mey = os The overprinted stamps for Hopei Province received relatively widespread use because of the large quantity of commercial mail from Peking in the period up to the beginning of World War II. Above examples used in July and August 1941 CHINESE INCIDENT Hopei North China 1941 Examples of special delivery and airmail usage of Hopei overprints from Peking to Tientsin and Shanghai, respectively, in October and November 1941. CHINESE INCIDENT Shansi North China 1941 ee y - inne eee eon a og OY a it d 1 } f oe : ES ug The overprinted stamps for Shansi Province were less widely used than Hopei. Above examples on covers mailed to Tientsin and Peking, respectively. CHINESE INCIDENT North China Shantung 1941 ‘Mrs. D.G. Folts, 257 Tremont Ave., Kenmora, New York, a KL “ow fryer" Je “ eS Ye i af i pe! i .™ vy . . ? 4 ' . ; sntudl taf The usage of the Shantung overprinted stamps was likely nearly as widespread as in Hopei, because of widespread commercial activity. Above examples include cover to Tientsin and registered letter sent from Tsingtao to New York on 19 October 1941. CHINESE INCIDENT North China The usage of the Supeh overprints is relatively uncommon Suchow. Above examples on covers to Tientsin and Peking. Supeh 1941 . Ny NX WY = = + ly A SARs es ‘ especially from towns other than the major city, CHINESE INCIDENT Military Mail Made im Japes. cna BRNSISa TEN! AIBN pel Lene Pa ye \ lst Naval P. O. 14 September 1937 Central China undated loniy at ay SS & sa fe fa & og re SL aA oo eb ° qa. me SRR BANS Rs Awe SSRN C SS ADS a \ SHE \ te eo 0 ENN ey SSN ts SARS YL — ak Vek WWSa ay — oS oR MSS } WaEontar ON mw rs ~“s ac DSSS Ae & SEI = \ LN a 5 78 Meets ag se '4 ih EA h piped TRO, fe i “Upper picture post card (shows Japanese troops watching the bombardment of Shanghai) sent through the naval post office by a marine serving on HIJMS Izuma moored in the Whangpoo River in Shanghai. Postmark reads "Dai Ichi Gunyo Yubinsho." Lower card reads "...fighting here and there in Middle guarding a town by the Yangtse River." 4 » ASR J Sas HOOT a 3 . ae le we tS Ste I py a Le, € her] © ue AP Aan | @ 7 ma" abv Ut 2 mits 5 se iN yen ye 7, pe" if yk: a: A 5 at g: ali aime AEE we ENE nape AL 0 a5 3 WOOL RMF ane ha ox. “hh J 5 i oxer enn AH Se rn veh me valet S eo al fas < ~ pa ieee ee Nf A$ als eyaes any giv ere me nN A S Yount ye milo mR {~ “ake pe hese ‘ a * 1 ORR net ben ‘ a ! a Lost. - * ' at Ty. ee ~ ’ uP mee TOV : hae J - t ah = eh bb gaa dess aah ws) * ee . Vea : mu a > mS cee { ' 7 “| | ! ; a" | aan , ; a hoa 4 - . rs a Lat i I {_»& . a my i wA zy 5 al a ee Ri BE P ae SPAS Sa AY RES 5 | i | «US —y sr ey Ly Seve se way Saree CHINESE INCIDENT I = oo Ea i? a j aE WS rest 2 nil ae i” Upper card sent to Nara orship chops. Expeditionary Army. Middle and lower picture post cards although they show a variety of cens m members of the Central China Expedition. As was common practice at the ime, Prefecture from the Headquarters of the Central China --Additional field post cards fro: the cards are unpostmarked, Korea. (scenes in Shanghai and Chinkiang) sent to same recipient in Pyongyang, CHINESE INCIDENT Hankow Central China 1941 eee ica: bil ee eee S FAS Aeernd AEA Fh cored ¢ @ec8vcaeo eUdeveveeuvecaooas Occupation stamps for regular mail in the Shanghai-Nanking area were not issued until 1942. However, as all airmail from the occupied area was carried by Japanese planes, postage on such letters had to be paid in Japanese currency. This required surcharges (i.e. 10 sen) on Chinese airmail stamps, as used from Hankow to Shanghai. CHINESE INCIDENT Meng Chiang Inner Mongolia 7 September 1941 Ly FE Lie te ea EROS ESAS oes SaaS LD 5 IK Sta? are As in the case of the provinces in North China, stamps from the Martyrs and Sun Yat-sen issues overprinted "Meng Chiang" were placed on sale in Inner Mongolia on 1 July 1941. Above use on registered cover to Tientsin.