The Expansion of Serbia 1876 to 1921 (Text Content)

This web page, published by the Military Postal History Society, contains the text content of the single frame The Expansion of Serbia 1876 to 1921 This exhibit was created by, and is the property of the late Al Kugel, and is being supplied by his heirs as a courtesy to the Military Postal History Society.

Introduction Text

This exhibit documents through contemporary postal material the tumultuous story of the expansion of Serbia in the late 19th and early 20th Centuries. The events depicted were triggered by an uprising against the Ottoman Empire by the Christian Slavs in Bosnia-Hercegovina in 1875, which provoked an unsuccessful Serbian attack on Turkey. Subsequently, the intervention of Russia in the war against the Turks rescued the Serbs and enhanced their territory. Later, additional wars were fought against both the Ottoman Empire and against its Balkan neighbors in conflicts over the division of the spoils of Turkey's lost possessions in Europe. Following the end of World War I, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later renamed Jugoslavia) was created, with the Serbs playing a dominant political role.

To view the exhibit page images, see: web page linking to the image content of the 10 exhibit frames.

Updated 4/13/2023

Text Content of Exhibit


The exhibit is laid out chronologically as it runs through the various conflicts, including the Serbo-Turkish & Russo-Turkish Wars of 1876-1878, the war against Bulgaria in 1885, the First & Second Balkan Wars in 1912-1913 and, finally, World War I from 1914 to 1918 as well as its aftermath. As a result, the bulk of the material shown is either mail from the Serbian forces participating in the various campaigns or civil mail from newly liberated or occupied territories. Thus, the story of the expansion of Serbia in the 45-year period under review can be told.

Very early Serbian military mail, used during the Serbo-Turkish War. Has boxed marking "Vojena Posta” (Military Mail) with cancellation of FPO 4 dated 5 October (1876). Postage was uprated by 10 para because of foreign destination. Military usage to Samara, Russia in this period is extraordinary. Note transit mark of Moscow on 14 October and receiving mark applied in Samara on 23 October. Due to the low level of literacy of the Serbian troops and a high rate of destruction of philatelic material during subsequent wars, the availability of fieldpost cards and covers is necessarily limited, especially from the earlier campaigns. Indeed, some can be considered as quite elusive. As a result, the items shown in the exhibit have been gradually accumulated over several decades, mostly one at a time and largely from sources in Europe. The condition of the material shown is considered to be well above average for the subject being studied. SERBO-TURKISH WAR In mid-1876, Prince Milan of Serbia, desiring to support a Christian insurrection in Bosnia, declared war on the Ottoman Empire. However, the Serbs were not up to the task, as the army was ill-prepared and the Turks won a major battle at Aleksinac. Following a Russian ultimatum, the Turks granted an armistice to the Serbs. which was followed by a peace agreement signed on 1 March 1877 confirming the status quo. FPO 5 19 August 1876 FPO _ 25 September 1876 Military mail from this campaign is seldom seen because of its short duration and the low literacy rate among the troops. Internal mail was postage free as shown by the upper cover which is a request from the commander of the Drinska unit to district authorities in Loznica for money to buy boots for the soldiers. Lower postal card shows unusual usage to Moscow, requiring uprating to cover the 20 para international postage. It is of special interest as the sender was the Commander of the Russian military observers serving with the Serbian forces. SERBO-TURKISH WAR FPO 1 28 September 1876 FPO2 14 October 1876 : 4 Bn vy i Military mail from this conflict was free of postage and normally cancelled with postmarks reading "Vojena Posta (Military Post)" and a number. Upper cover from FPO #1 was sent from the HQ of the Rudnik Brigade to the Minister of Education & Ecclesiastical Affairs in Belgrade. Lower cover from FPO #2 is a private letter from a soldier to his high school professor in Belgrade. SERBO-TURKISH WAR FPO 8 14 September 1876 Krusevac 1 November 1876 & GApeC CrUCHATH. PUNT HL COTE f hint Postal cards with boxed "Military Mail" handstamps were given to the troops during the Serbo-Turkish War. Upper card from FPO #8 is datelined Kulijou and sent to Belgrade. Lower card sent from Krusevac, where it was postmarked in the civil post office. Transit time to Belgrade was four days in each instance. RUSSO-TURKISH WAR Following the Serbo-Turkish War, relations between Russia and the Turks continued to deteriorate and eventually resulted in war being declared on 24 April 1877. The Serbs eventually joined in, although under the terms of their previous peace agreement with he Turks, they remained aloof from the fighting until 15 December. Thus, their forces played only a minor role in the war and received little reward, while Austria ended up in control of Bosnia- Hercegovina and the Sandjak of Novi Bazar, and Bulgaria became an independent principality. FPO 3 25 February 1877 FPO 8 16 December 1877 During the "twilight" period between the wars and after hostilities resumed, the Serbians used the same numbered FPO markings as in the earlier conflict. Upper cover mailed from FPO #3 at Boljevac to Belgrade in February 1877. Lower example shows FPO #8 used at Lesnica (sent to Loznica) on the day after the war was resumed by Serbia. Both of these markings are extremely elusive. RUSSO-TURKISH WAR : FPO 4 10 October 1878 FPO 6 20 January 1878 Upper example used from FPO #4 at Leskovac to Belgrade, where it arrived four days later. Lower cover used from FPO #6 at Kusic to Valjevo. Both of these markings are highly elusive. RUSSO-TURKISH WAR Ub 15 November 1877 A money letter for 60 dinars sent to soldier Aksentija Stepanovica of the 1st Battery of the Morava Artillery at Bavlacu near Raska. However, in spite of a considerable effort to find him, the letter had to be returned to the sender. Note the forwarding cds of Raska dated 27 March (1878), a marking rarely seen from this period. RUSSO-TURKISH WAR Vojena Posta 18 February 1878 22 June 1878 m 7, ANecseey, One additional type of military marking was used during the Russo-Turkish War era, i.e. the rectangular box inscribed "Military Mail" that was in service two years earlier. Examples shown are folded letters: the upper item sent from Alexinac to Kragujevac was unfranked due to its military origin. Lower item was franked with 20 paras in Prince Milan stamps and is written in Greek. It is a commercial letter from the firm of Christodulo & Son and was subject to censorship, as attested by manuscript "Vidio (seen)” and signature on reverse. RUSSO-TURKISH WAR : K. Srb. Posta/Pirot : 8 February 1878 Inspekcija Vojnih Posta 24 February 1878 Special military stationery was issued to provide free franking for the Serbian soldiers. Upper card mailed from Pirot to Belgrade. Lower card has undated single-circle marking with coat of arms and inscription "Inspectorate of Military Posts," introduced in early 1878. It was sent from Nish and backstamped at Belgrade on 26 February. RUSSO-TURKISH WAR Vojna Posta/Vrh. Komande 26 February 1878 Vojna Posta/Shumadia Division 10 November 1878 Upper card shows an example of the circular postmark used at Headquarters. Lower card mailed by a member of the Shumadia Division to an address in Nish in the liberated territory. RUSSO-TURKISH WAR Petlavatz , 17 September 1877 Mail From "Italian Legion" Volunteer Serbian postal card with added 10 para franking for foreign destination. Boxed marking reads "Military Mail.” The return address indicates extraordinary usage by Italian volunteer with the "Army of the Brzna, Italian Legion, Belgrade" who was undoubtedly motivated by sympathy for the Christian Serbs against the Muslim Turks. Message describes difficulties of the campaign and expresses hope for an end to the fighting in the near future. In fact, the Treaty of San Stefano was not signed until 3 March 1878. RUSSO-TURKISH WAR Vojna Posta/Moravska Division 5 August 1878 Vojna Posta/Shumadia Division 1 November 1878 Vojna Posta/Timok Division 17 July 1878 #2] EE RARE BOJHO CAOBPA’RAIHA KAPTA. ie pees a en ; Chinen see I I IO SN NR IAS SF SIDE OEE. INGO BOJHO CAOBPAR AIHA KAPTA. 7 pas, /) Ea OY bs ~ AD Cy Ze g cs ao : SEEPS SB aces RNR REDE iE ie ieserEE ES peo i NG if, & \ nN 4... Zz , my 3 VM / f. h ae fC HATTER LOL OL Lie rate SISSIES ESECSISESISESRE SAS SEDESI SENSO SDE SRSECESE DN SINE SISEI SESS SEESS NARADA AOA SOARS) SO Rhee Ne In three cases, the military postmarks were inscribed to show the specific unit to which it was assigned, as shown above for the divisions. RUSSO-TURKISH WAR : Vojena Posta/Prokuplje : 8 August 1878 Military Mail to Foreign Destination Although internal military mail was free of postage, this did not apply to items addressed to foreign countries. Because of the destination in Mauer (near Vienna), Austria, a 20 para Prince Milan stamp was duly affixed to this military letter card. Backstamped with transit markings of Military HQ and the civil P.O. in Belgrade, it was received in Mauer on 24 September 1878. RUSSO-TURKISH WAR Belgrade 14 November 1878 From the Royal Serbian War Ministry Mt She Bes a Joe seo pte OK fp ee | ie ser Sif bp oo Vy eh orler (210 pairs for 7 a Official letter from the War Ministry in Belgrade involving the transfer of funds to the Serbian Agency in Vienna. It weighed over 95 grams and contained a value of 72 francs or 1320 piasters. This cover has a docketing number at the top left but no transit or receiving marks, indicating that it was sent by diplomatic pouch. On the reverse are five wax seals of the Ministry of War. A most unusual piece of military mail related to the war just concluded. RUSSO-TURKISH WAR Vojena Posta/Vrh. Komande Mail To & From Annexed Territory 12 January 1879 Royal Serbian Post/Nish 22 September 1880 As a result of the successful intervention by Russia in the fighting against the Turks, Serbia was able to occupy former Ottoman territory inhabited by ethnic Slavs. By the decisions taken at the Congress of Berlin, the Serbs were allotted only the districts of Nish and Pirot. Upper cover was mailed from Valjevo to Nish and backstamped for receipt at Serbian HQ as Nish did not receive a civil postmark until 1880. An example of this latter is shown on the postal card below, which was sent from the British Consulate at Nish to Pancevo, Hungary. RUSSO-TURKISH WAR Vojna Posta/Vrh. Komande May 1879 July 1879 Mail from the British Military Mission f f a 1. © ay * AVY EMD LE ( md Aye 2 A dort. Rich eee Ue ha gee 2 had urfr_, : ENGLAND The outcome of the Congress of Berlin was very unsatisfactory from Serbia's point of view. Therefore, Prince Milan felt that additional fighting in the Balkans was likely. (Indeed, the Serbs were to attack Bulgaria in 1885.) Thus a program was undertaken to strengthen the army. These covers mailed from a British Military Advisor to his wife in Scotland. Upper item is postmarked with a "Military Post/Headquarters" cds and the lower has a boxed "Naplaceno (Paid)" marking believed to have originated at Pirot. The latter has a Belgrade transit marking of 16 July 1879 on the reverse. RUSSO-TURKISH WAR Royal Serbian Post/Pirot 24 March 1880 Not military use as such, this cover reflects the extension of the Serbian postal service to the newly-annexed southern territory following the Russo-Turkish War. Sent from Pirot to Sarajevo, Bosnia, it is franked with Prince Milan stamps -- a 10 para orange (fifth printing, perforated 12) plus a severed pair of the 40 para mauve (fourth printing, perf. 9 1/2). The manuscript "3 dr" indicates double weight status. Accordingly, postage was 2 x 25 paras intemational letter rate plus 40 paras registration. Backstamped in transit at Zimony (Hungary) on 9 April and for receipt at the Austrian military P.O. in Sarajevo on 14 April. SERBO-BULGARIAN WAR When a Christian uprising in Eastern Roumelia permitted Bulgaria to annex that territory, Milan (having elevated himself to king in 1882) became very jealous about the expansion of his neighbor. He was nothing, if not intemperate, and on 14 November 1885 launched an unprovoked attack on the Bulgarians. However, the latter scored a decisive victory at Slivnitza on the 19th and subsequently advanced into Serbia near Pirot. On the 28th the Austrian minister intervened and brought the hostilities to an end. Bela Palanka 8 November 1885 NG OBY CUIpRUHU CUTABthe ce.camo agpnec. Military mail from this short campaign is quite scarce. The above military postal card was especially timely, being mailed prior to the outbreak of hostilities and arriving in Belgrade on the first day of the war. SERBO-BULGARIAN WAR Belgrade 22 November 1885 28 November 1885 TL TPP ATE TS eS ee re rd lt =] e i 5 E bey zy | 5 : Q i ey * al 5 ©) Uy. Ad Zz iz 9 © 5 ANG OBOy Caplan CUMLBARC CC COMO UY pec. a (er LL AUAUA UU in UL Url Uy Up UAuUAURLn Se a ne en B OJHUGKA AOMMCHA KAPTA : aes AG i IAUALALAL (URAL LAUR UU UA a Ni oBoy cCmpanu ciaBAahe 0 came agper FLL OL LIP ra Upper card was mailed shortly before the end of hostilities and is datelined in manuscript on the reverse "22 XI. 1885 at the ferrying place." The blue cachet with the royal arms of Serbia in the center reads "Karta Vojno Saobracajna (Military Communications Card)." The lower card was mailed on the date that the Austrian minister arrived in Belgrade to negotiate an end to the fighting. SERBO-BULGARIAN WAR UAURURLAual | ALLA UU : : QO BAN HMUKA JOMMCHA KAPTA yy a hig 8 tujiy u Udopepy A ny Lae sh == Zoo Se EG Murry AN oe J. TEIN In TMA Ze } f L : iE } fd. y \ a sities FPO 3 6 December 1885 FPO 4 22 January 1886 a FRU UR URLUAun ur . s eh 8 ri 2. ee ea : a a E es a fer REE UU Eo UL Although mailed shortly after the cessation of hostilities, these cards represent the discovery examples of the use of the old numbered military postmarks (from the time of the Russo-Turkish War in 1877-78) in the most recent conflict. Such usage is unrecorded by either Rasic or Glasewald. It is interesting that on the lower example, the fieldpost mark, a Jagodina transit mark and the receiving mark in Belgrade are all dated on 22 January, suggesting that this FPO was located within reasonable proximity to the capital. SERBO-BULGARIAN WAR Nish 18 December 1885 Leskovac 16 February 1886 Ip Ru = 2 C7rcnarap tua \iaaigions Net ndptisorcuatuny ALAA UU Linn nn S49 5 € x ce ip NG OBO, CUPL AHI CHOBRURC CC camo agpec. FEL LLL LI oo -\g E ELL { ids ie} ie = a fe if oS a te Cy ddl ; 225 s 5 4 “| : , tN | g eon WO SHMU RA ZOTMCHA KAPT | 7 5 fy ef 7 e : deven, aot - oe By doe & “| r E co os : = | fui “ye... OWTKH... a Et “ £ & q| NG OBGT Clip CULOB BERL CC CAMO ag prec. e LLL Also mailed after the cessation of hostilities, these cards are additional examples of the special military postal cards supplied free to the troops. Rasic states that "Fieldpost correspondence of the Serbian army during this short war is rare." He does not record such use from Leskovac. FIRST BALKAN WAR Observing the ease with which the Italians had seized Libya and the Dodecanese Islands, the smaller Balkan states joined forces to settle their grievances with the Turks. Serbia declared war on the Ottoman Empire on 17 October 1912 and a week later won a decisive battle at Kumanovo, which opened the way for the occupation of Macedonia, the Sandjak of Novi Bazar and Northem Albania. An armistice was signed on 3 December 1912. ee S Seah —— Mypebupe2 UNION POSTALE UMVEADELLE eto, eS ER oancbagls 5 LSE UE VEE A LA CECE at GeO MD EEIEIS YOUVE KPAJbEBHHA Very early use of a standard Serbian fieldpost card from CPBHJA Vranya to Nish. : ZZ ee s Unit marking of Soa Ppa n nob. ee Oop Military Medical ' Warehouse. i BOJHWUKA@ ~ JOMVCHA /HAPTA VT porzp ee LZ 29 October 1912 Vranya 24 October 1914 Early usage of a Turkish postal card for fieldpost service to Knjazevac by a Serbian soldier. Unit marking of the 14th Regiment meant that the card was free of postage. BALKAN WAR Kritchovo Military Mail 25 October 1912 Pristina 14 October 1912 Union Postale UniverseHé wis Turquie LEFDIS ES Carte Postale N.B. Ce céte ci est réservé o ; « ‘ x Soom ° . Sate "ee 4 e > exclusivement & Vadresse Jidayh aVb gl Sea cto el hd See ps afa ojo ofSlofslofe ofe)o5/Slafelofolofelas ofGlofcjgfe gfojo B_efalofolefelofslofelosfajofa olLofojsyojafa sisi : od wie Some of the soldiers wanted to send messages home even before the fieldpost service was up and running. In such cases, old Turkish postal cards were utilized with Ottoman postmarks as forerunners. The above examples were So treated and not subjected to postage due even though no military markings were applied. BALKAN WAR Military Mail ‘ a Th 4 HPAJbEBHHA Ih : | BO rae 3 GHA _, Galli, éditeur, Janvier 1908, 2me tirage. KPAJbEBHHA BOJHUYKA AONUCHA HAPTA Wy : i . f Can axpecy. & ee ee es ‘ * Ai et ! sae age Pa NA Ea re at ae Pa inex ey Mitrovitza 26 October 1912 Monastir November 1912 Guevgelia 12 November 1912 4 In the early days of the war, mail was cancelled provisionally with old Turkish markings found in postal facilities or railway stations. Above examples show such usage from Mitrovica, Bitolia and Djevdjelija, respectively. BALKAN WAR TPO Pirot-Belgrade Military Mail 29 January 1913 Prizren 17 February 1913 cpoxja Bots Serbie Vy fi A : JONMCHA BAPTA — CARTE POSTALE CBETCKHM MOMTAHCKM CABES— UNON POSTALE UNIVERSELLE A Visname mmnxupe Pajxosuha m Ryxosuba, Beorpar bee t 4 f 7 ms . $ ty e se £| P 8 a ee OMe LR hin. ae ‘Sa6pameno y@r bore sais, 888 70T On occasion, when there was no fieldpost station nearby, military mail was postmarked enroute at a civil post office or not at all. The upper example was not cancelled until it traveled on the TPO between Pirot and Belgrade on its way to an addressee in the latter city. Lower card is datelined Prizren and sent to Kragujevac with no military markings, but manuscript "Military Post" apparently sufficed. BALKAN WAR Military Post/Headquarters Military Mail 23 December 1912 i = — ae 26 December 1912 i 14 April 1913 3 — 3 2 P as vj, CPBUJA hz Serbie. WOMMCHA KAPTA — KARTE POSTALE _ CBETCKM MOLITAHCHH CABE3 — UNION POSTALE UNIVERSELLE i Honane Kisuxape Pajrosuha u Byxosnha, Beorpan. Dagens Sa6paireno v6 I Hes fi Site) ie 23 a 1912 4 é Several new fieldpost markings were introduced during the campaign. Above examples show two types used at General Headquarters, both with and without vertical lines around the date. Military mail was free of postage, except that the 25 para UPU rate had to be paid on the cover to Switzerland. (Note purple cachet of the Headquarters Staff and strikes of the old Turkish Mitrovitza-to-Uskub TPO marking.) BALKAN WAR Military Post/Headquarters Military Mail 26 February 1913 Fieldpost cover sent from Headquarters in the field to Belgrade. Note very elusive imprinted comercard of "Headquarters - Quartermaster Corps." BALKAN WAR Military Post/l Army Military Mail 22 October 1912 3 Military Post/II Army 4 aa 14 November 1912 HPAJBEBHHA . - = BOJHVYUKA, OR cau bs \ Military Post/III Army : 14 November 1912 JOMUCHA a CPBHJA Camo 3a ampecy. Vozawe Pyca.n amuimha, Beorpage « Nags sn ? yar * Ad g NS) Api © Bos a? 1 HOF TTT IOn 6 ADPEL: UCAAO iz } Following the victory at Kumanovo, the First and Third Armies advanced easily. One moved south into Macedonia, capturing Skoplje (Uskub) and Bitolj (Monastir), while the other crossed Albania to the Adriatic Sea. The Second Army was detached to support the Bulgarians who were bogged down outside Odrin (Adrianople). The three armies used newly-issued fieldpost markings inscribed "Military Post" and the army number. The Second Army marking on postal card has additional Bulgarian franking in payment of the 10 para international postcard rate. Message on the reverse of this card reads "Greetings from the battlefield of Jadrene." BALKAN WAR Pristina Military Mail 20 April 1913 Skopie 18 July 1913 Royal Serbian Railway Inspectorate RPAJbEBHHA releng ; ” ames CTARSH 4 IPHLUTHHK CPBHJA oo Seas Maaety ae as Camo sa alpecy KPAJbEBHHA Camo 3a affhecys These cards have the cachets of the Railway Inspectors Office, one used from the RR station in Pristina and the other from the Headquarters in Skopie. Such usages are seldom seen. BALKAN WAR Skoplje Military Mail 27 April 1913 Prilip 23 November 1913 HPAIbEBHHA’ ~ ¢. BOJHMUKA AONUCHA Camo 3a aupecy Ayr hy, 2 ; ff 8 HPAJbEBHHAS °° a Camo 3a ampecy Late usage of special fieldpost cards. No despatch postal markings applied but shows use of unit cachets to justify free postage for soldiers. BALKAN WAR TPO Pirot-Belgrade Military Mail Used From Hospital Train oe PB ar eek aaa Serbie. a ee — CARTE P Qo — 2 LE 'ONIVEI me baioke ae Ue. Bea hl % Lh ong Kiw j Paoideh, ” Ay eee ae fan ey Vo oe Oi nusan agrmage Pp wn ME; SaOpamexo yanoataparne (6 16200 bh dn: Hisqame KeesExape Pa soe nu ‘Kykopnha, Beorpag. This card has the cachet of the Hospital Train No. 3 and is postmarked on the TPO that ran between Pirot and Belgrade. Such hospital usage is very unusual, not seen previously by exhibitor. BALKAN WAR Military Mail KPAJBEBHHA BOJHHYKA Nee «© AOMMCHA H; See a CPBHJA Jocervg Camo 3a alpecy 38 “g at k re 4 Ba Tl uy, oe hp om UO. Mapuly 4 ‘ane ey — aon “Ceopag, Alexandrovo 2 June 1913 Katchanik 8 March 1913 Kumanovo 9 February 1913 sds : ae om 7 Ww y 2 ‘ p=) ‘ yj ro WT oy wy Ertan’ ns icah td wt 3a6 oO ym Provisional postmarks used in the newly annexed territories during the period of the First and Second Balkan Wars in 1913. Struck in violet and with indecipherable letters in the dark areas above and below the dates. The marking of Alexandrovo is considered especially elusive, with only two examples recorded. BALKAN WAR Bitolj Military Postmarks 29 March 1913 Debar 2 June 1913 Fo ee Me. Fi PL OLE RECO AU CONSULAT DE RUSSIE & MONASTIR a ~. Ye A: "POST Gy CARD. "FOR Conierclentt bab Ne Leena boaitc es LL Ye fay ee ee ced: sgh al “aa Behe C4 Ht Pave fe GQ & ee fy ewes - me 24, BN Pe MAL Le. 2 a by, § FOR-ADDRESS ONLY a 3 %. igonee _ STAMP i 4 ; pees eae if L . fp F ait Ne ot _f Once the fighting ended and the situation stabilized, new postmarks were issued in 26 towns in the territory annexed to Serbia (all of which are represented in the exhibit, including the extremely elusive Katchanik). They were bilingually inscribed (in Serbian and French) with the names and also had "Military Post" in Serbian inserted around the date. These markings were used on both civil and military mail. BALKAN WAR Djevdjelija Military Postmarks 2 January 1913 Ferizovic Z oy 4 June 1913 Reply nrrren toe le uh Yu y 4M ‘i | Ryssnppeeny Leas. u es eh Wy ome: Vowel q Hs Gecijacs We bs Yi Ih wy wo : Biome) \ Covers with the "Military Post" markings from the smaller villages are exceedingly elusive for the most part. BALKAN WAR Giljane Military Postmarks 17 March 1913 Gostivar 29 April 1913 HPAJbEBHHA BOJHUUKA Camo 3a agpecy. CPBHJA. Serbie. AOMNCHA KAPTA — CARTE POSTALE, Csercxu [lomrancra Cazes — Union Postale Universelle, £ Note that the cds for Gostivar differs from the standard military markings in that the date is enclosed in a "box" and has no stars at the side. BALKAN WAR Katchanik Military Postmarks 1 June 1914 Scarcest of the Military Postmarks CPBHJA. Serbie. AONMCHA KAPTA — CARTE POSTALE, Cretcru Tomrauckeu Cases — Union Postale Universelfe. | {* « 9 4 Tazarwe Cotowona Reena, koa Hanoreona, Beorpat. Katchanik is the most elusive of the 26 town postmarks introduced during the Balkan War, with fewer than five examples having been reported. It is highly sought after by Serbian specialists. BALKAN WAR Kichevo Military Postmarks 19 December 1914 Kratovo 24 August 1915 i a, ee = 3 oe ee Od P yay & at & = fy Spriibde Teok Cynerfg sone . I ave-toi, ogar Q2usen, A Sone er e 3 Papell! | . x oy y & d ar ar hoy i-kPr py y ‘ x & : \ é, Se Co & e e 5} S ern 2 MM, N aT of a 7 — SU ¢Cjlode| D. x Co. Prague. A We = ox 2068 KPAJDEBHHA MOMMCHA KAPTA CPACKHX ce Sot \ K! 4 JO wb . a A 1°r S Hanare Hncnenumse flowra crnckux apminsa oe In some towns, such as Kratovo, the Balkan War military cancels were never replaced with civil versions and continued to be used until the retreat from Serbia in late 1915. BALKAN WAR Kumanovo Military Postmarks 26 June 1913 Mitrovica 4 May 1913 oo BOJHUYUKA \MEy = IOMMCHA HAPTA Lia he D 5 eis e Camo 3a alpecy. E : + g - a — = te é BOJHHUKA hi AONMCHA HAPTA CPBMJA ed Coders ee Ay aopudpepuechyp ttle 2, LL. ay Ses Ce f st Tasos, elds. fe cp : Mitrovica is in the area that is now Kosovo and was annexed to Serbia even though it was heavily populated by ethnic Albanians. This was one of the unfortunate decisions to come out of the settlement at the end of the Balkan Wars. BALKAN WAR Nova Varos Military Postmarks 7 November 1913 Ohrid 31 July 1913 # San ee o N aidecaeys jae tH ots “ VERS ne Cawo 3a anpecy. akitabtr 4 Lo FR Ohrid is a small town situated on the lake of the same name that was the subject of dispute over ownership between Albania, Bulgaria and Serbia. (Today it is in the Republic of Macedonia.) BALKAN WAR Prilip Military Postmarks 8 July 1914 19 April 1914 CPBHJA AOMNUCHA HAPTA Camo 3a aapecy. Note that the cds for Prilip -- a very elusive marking -- has a box around the area containing the date, and the inscription "Military Post" is in white letters on a black background, the only such example among the military cancels of this period. BALKAN WAR Prizren Military Mail 15 February 1913 Radoviste 25 July 1913 Examples of "Military Post" cancels for Prizren (in Kosovo) and for Radoviste are among the most elusive. BALKAN WAR Skoplje Military Postmarks 19 August 1913 Stip 3 January 1915 freareirioniral Ae | —— BC CPNCKA PAth. MOWTA The Skoplje cover from a British relief worker has a "Headquarters" military cds as well as the town marking. Payment of the 25 para international letter rate was required. BALKAN WAR Syenitza Military Postmarks 5 September 1913 Tetovo 7 January 1913 : a3 97006 09 Krurcebo, ar galas he BOJHHUKA "AONUCHA HAPTA, Camo 3a_anpecy. Examples of registered mail from military post offices, as Syenitza above, must be considered very elusive. BALKAN WAR Vucitrn Military Postmarks 20 January 1914 Weles 22 May 1913 The fieldpost card from Weles to Zagreb (then in Hungary) was not entitled to the military free frank and was assessed postage due of 10 filler by the Hungarians. Registered cover from Vucitrn is a very unusual usage. BALKAN WAR TPO Monastir-Bitolj Military Mail 25 December 1913 Greek Railway Post Office in Serbia aves gue Or 2790 Wy 4 hb [insirwe SEBYE POSTALE Picture postcard of Monastir in Serbian annexed area and sent to Belgrade. It was franked with Serbian postage, but then postmarked with the extremely elusive Greek TPO cds, which was in use only from August to December 1913. Only two or three examples of this marking are recorded. BALKAN WAR Salonica Troops in Greece 28 November 1912 23 March 1913 Cys ; £ : , TURQUIE : are oe oe Union Postale Universelle. Carte Postale. =: Z 3B ao funk : HA pore BOJHUYKA OMVCHA HAPTA (eof (Li Camo 3a ampecy. Bulgaria, Greece and Serbia all felt that they had a claim to the city of Salonica. However, the Greek army arrived first on 8 November 1912. The others did send troops and maintained their own postal facilities there until the final boundaries were decided in favor of Greece. Upper card with manuscript dateline "Soloun, 28/XI-912" is very unusual. BALKAN WAR | Troops in Greece | "“Soloun/Serbian Post" ona telegram pee ces — = oe ss Se “i Ast * wee Eat — Pa é fa smn 4 ff J : - “ 2 4 ; Z A Zo _|_ CAYIKBEHM TOTAWH 10) Po Bh a | rani 4 Ommpasno: | Bpeme oTnpaBhatha iA Tac Hay) WO. WH. 38all v cr ae AP! V Pee ae ? A oth At A f oe am wieten ° Salonica 20 November 1912 HTBP. 1—I1 ny BALKAN WAR Djakovica Troops in Montenegro 7 April 1913 Istok 3 October 1913 Plevlje 15 July 1913 Stamp cancelled with the postal money order cds for Istok, of which only two examples recorded. Fanbege b lijouan T4/3 ba Cp6uja Serbie ; KOWHCHA RAPTA — CARTE POSTALE ; Anata TOMITA : fa A ree Mt “emtgam Wot é WY f Clap Ge | PB Hi SG gr BabpAmeno ymHowasane. \ Sena Serbian forces overran the area lying between their pre-1912 borders and those of Montenegro, including the Sandjak of Novi Bazar. Military post offices offices were opened in five cities. In the subsequent territorial settlement, Djakovica, Istok and Plevlje were assigned to Montenegro. Examples shown above of postmarks used during the Serbian occupation period. BALKAN WAR Troops in Albania Geb J poe pales 3) 9 Sigh edml ye Sas IP V9ae EENOAOXEION & EXTIATOPION “TO SYNTAIMA, NIKOAAOX I. POTIH AYPPAXION ROTEL & RESTAURANT “CONSTITUTION,, 8 NICOLAS PIERRE ROZZI f BURALZO “h, Card with cachet of the Royal Serbian Port Command in Durazzo delivered directly to and postmarked on the Austrian Lloyd S.S. Melpomene en route to addressee in Norway. HPAJbEBHHA CPBHJA C “ é is Toa vets aes eee ie ee? wh Camo 3a ampecy. > ea nowt hon Ih NCAR Drac 30 November 1912 7 January 1913 13 April 1913 A forerunner card mailed by a Serbian soldier just after Durazzo was occupied but before the Serbs opened their own post office. It was sent through the Austrian post office abroad then in operation. iO Examples of Serbian postmarks used in Albania are quite elusive. This one was used at the military post office in Drac (Durazzo). BALKAN WAR Troops in Albania Conte Re “CPBHJA — os oF "Camo 3a aypecy.. Postcard sent through the Serbian post office in Lesh, Albania during the period of the temporary Serbian occupation of this area. BOJHMYUKA Daan AONUCHA.HAPTA | me Sone 9-98) Lesh 7 November 1912 10 April 1913 Forerunner card mailed by a Serbian soldier after the capture of Lesh (Alessio) but before the Serbs opened their own post office. It was delivered to the Montenegrin authorities at Bar (Antivari) for transmission to the addressee in Krusevac. Fewer than five examples of a this marking are reported. denhec he Lie : Choate on a b x rtd Hace ve t * Math, 2 a Mest Ld Moria. Adi a OF BALKAN WAR Kustendil Troops in Bulgaria 21 January 1913 Example of a Serbian postal card used in Bulgaria by a member of the Serbian Second Army aiding the Bulgarians during the First Balkan War. Serbian postage of 5 paras (domestic rate) was accepted by the Bulgarian postal service. BALKAN WAR Jedrene Troops in Bulgaria 18 December 1912 Kadikej-Jedrene 11 February 1913 £ WASH KED-2EN FEE 2 € J see he, gpd die Upper card datelined at Jedrene before a postmark was available but canceled at Sofia four days later; the Serbian postage of 10 para was accepted by the Bulgarians as paying the international postcard rate to Hungary. Lower card shows the very elusive first Jedrene provisional cancel, a straight-line version introduced in early 1913. | BALKAN WAR Jedrene-Kadikej Troops in Bulgaria 16 February 1913 March 1913 oC a Tlomencka kapta — Union postale universelle. © 8 4 3 : . ‘Mapra. + : ae = a pa oe eH Hsyzana Ms. ff. Bausjaposs-Cocbua Verlag Jv. D. Bajdaroff-Sofia. | Gey dts n-o © -1943 7 CM Gp Ode many Aye sf Puerta le Bidies | Kian teagan | Aspect. i Y Llp. a “my, oe = During the short-lived occupation of Jedrene by the Serbian Army in February-March 1913, two other versions of provisional postmarks were used. Upper outbound card shows a circular "Jedrene-Kadikej" while bottom inbound card from Belgrade shows the circular wording reversed. SECOND BALKAN WAR When the Great Powers intervened to create an independent Albania, Serbia wanted compensation from Bulgaria's share of the conquered territory. The latter objected and on 28 June 1913 attacked the Serbs in a battle over the spoils of the First Balkan War. However, with Greece, Romania and even Turkey joining with Serbia, the fighting was quickly ended on ais 30 July, with the Bulgarians agreeing to give up large chunks of Macedonia and Thrace. Troops in Romania [SE BOJHMUKA ZOFIVICHA HAPTA Ce CPBHJA * Camo 3a aupecy Caracal 29 July 1913 This Serbian fieldpost card was mailed in Romania by a Serb (assigned to help the Romanian forces against Bulgaria during the Second Balkan War in July-August 1913) to his father back home in Serbia. Accepted as postage free by the Romanians, it has both civil and military postmarks -- the latter of the Cavalry Division. BALKAN WAR Used in New Serbia fo p eo up clout Gostivar 5 March 1914 Kavadar 6 July 1914 ee oh ee cf aN + gr ig D\enurar ure ee eh ii el etilon WaPMHCKUX WekIapalwja wre des déclarations en douane ) ONpemebera de destination be : iM 6po) Kyhe GAP F4Hin eg (t= £& Rue et Ne ; ih Additional examples of new civil postmarks used in the annexed territory. BALKAN WAR Kumanovo Used in New Serbia 17 June 1913 Ochrid 1 July 1914 eS [=e LT am en SEES 257 Cy -Ipenwer A-joint , >poj WapwHCKux eKNapauyja | Nombre des déclarations en dou ee - _ 3pemHoct Jaleur assurée ilecro onpetemema ae eee jeu de destination Port da 7auua “ 6poj Kyhe FB Rue et Ne. ea en a JROCTARAE (on to | One a. ce Droit de factage Texxuna iS lipabal, O1npaneaina. foe eo Poids Go ge © Acheminement Dee 5 k Csera ee | Total Note use of Kumanovo money order cds on registered cover to Belgrade. The Ochrid cancel is used on a parcel address card. BALKAN WAR Prechevo Used in New Serbia 31 May 1914 | L | Postcard from Zombor, Hungary with three different postmarks from the newly-liberated territory. Addressed to Kumanovo, it transited Skoplje (the largest place in the area), reached Kumanovo and was forwarded to Prechevo. All of these towns are located within 25 miles, so that the markings are dated on three consecutive days. BALKAN WAR Pristina Used in New Serbia 24 October 1914 Prizren 13 November 1913 ~ e os is lite seers RAPTA,, POSTALE. Tle a : . TCKH ; Root i i C # pong. siege ¢ | vis re te Db 5 | Wires eee se “~*~ ‘y ie ps aoe up WY t “or fp-0 $ bbe bo 7, a a: we ww 1 ae meee a Be Wey Oo ; ce ire <' aed i ena, iileeas OI, 70 Ways fl ey f i CU Or Mea br 7 WI VOW Ww gw a od q P BSS Se.) 2 Se a fy Ae cy ao, Vorcyf’ UTA, oe Tony. ee Val ats flooms Lamu Uspane wmaxape Pajxosuha = Ayxonuha, Beorpan. 2 eae 2S : ad alae UE i 1 <= if 1 B-v1-1Q ae : | Uae CU | 3 dabpaweHo yMHooKaBane. Civil postmarks were also supplied to the two largest towns in Kosovo during this period. BALKAN WAR Used in New Serbia Ca BRI POSTALE POST CARD CARTOLINA KYTIOH Mowe tpumanay, oocehu. Hanoc yuyinnuue y uuoppama. Mme, mpesume u cran TOWMLaowa : oe os o ze Hos Oo# a ee ; AS on ae BS ie Bb Caonmiere | wa Doeaao ceTpani (TI Ne 36-a) oF os AM Radoviste 5 April 1914 Skoplje 22 January 1914 POSTKAF Kok , Postale oe \leaibuss TARJETA OS Mecro onpenemerma: : omy ey AS hy i WS 10 ty: = ; ho Pa. Z : ae Natty F CopX, sean uka te fo = & Sis i Note the Skoplje postal money order cancel properly used on a money order form for 15 dinars. BALKAN WAR Military Headquarters Military Mail 12 December 1912 Russian Red Cross Hospital He Men hare li usta Weep , bee yen ee u es kn MAY ygnet | tees. Aw , HO hyutogu ed eee ae ees um ol. 2c Sees bay au pdine capaho te Ane A0tSAAt PA uk Le C Fey teut Ae le oe tow rg pes pee ML b And f ey fees! oa Although not an active participant in the fighting, Russia provided moral support and humanitarian assistance to its Slavic brothers. This postcard has a red cachet inscribed "Base Hospital of the Mariinski Community of the Russian Red Cross" and was sent to Kiev in Unsaine. One of two recorded examples of this marking. WORLD WAR I Following the assassination of the heir apparent to the Austro-Hungarian throne by a Serbian nationalist in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914, Austria declared war on Serbia a month later. Enmeshed by the complicated system of alliances that had been constructed in the previous decades, all of the major European powers and were drawn into the conflict, which lasted for more than four years: = Obrenovac 21 September 1914 Skopje 6 October 1914 Belgrade 27 October 1914 KPAJBEBMHA _ Vice “eaten a A Led 41 Camo 3a ampecy ae 7 i After the Austrian attack, the Serbs reinstituted the field post service that they had used in the Balkan Wars, including the use of special imprinted military postal cards. WORLD WARI Nish Military Mail 27 October 1914 Belgrade 16 September 1915 # t7/ KPAJbEBHHA ys J se Dey CEPI | JIOWMCHHUA CPIICKOT PAN | ae &. h i | i om . Special free fieldpost cards were widely used by the soldiers, generally mailed at the nearest civilian post office. WORLD WARI Military Posts/Combined Division Military Mail 12 August 1914 Military Posts/Defense HQ/Belgrade 27 December 1914 6 February 1915 Ae bees BOJHUYKA AONUCHA HART? Fang \ Fait Cy & Gis Camo 3a aipecy. is yy é au See © Lik S seh eT vis y x N aes 4 ie COL a y sy vs Oe eer rye Lien 96. When war broke out, the Serbian postal service prepared a number of new postmarks for use on soldiers' mail. In some cases, the names of army units were inscribed in the cds, generally those of divisions, but occasionally down to brigades. WORLD WARI Military Posts/Branic. Odreda Military Mail ce 21 September 1914 Military Posts/Uzice Army 14 October 1915 Military Posts/Timok. Division 22 December 1914 Shaw ata | TO SSe ee > (0 Sw % ie 4 Ue ws oe KYNOH CPBHJA [nenatnourall? Wsnoc ynytanue y nu- @pama a. an HA HOWRAHCRA. YHVTRHIA Kar nour Kox Koje je yuy™ . é aK og Huma yinahena * a gee ae (TIN: 36—-6.) Additional examples of military postmarks with the names of army units inscribed in the cds. Most of these are scarce, some exceedingly so. WORLD WARI Military Mail Postmarks of Morava and Danube Divisions, examples of which are quite elusive, particularly the latter, which is a provisional marking. /EPNGKA h | PAC. MOWTA ea Military Posts/Morav. Division 12 December 1914 26 April 1915 Danube Division 24 April 1915 WORLD WARI Military Posts/Drina Division Military Mail 21 November 1915 hy oBUX LuUHUja name E. eal eM fo x ; = 9 eS 5 M eae see 2 pee = ‘Cae ee ea a Zt : ; ns ape : : | 3 Bee = .. * 6 | Hi. %. " ie, pay Ct Ilormuc spannunnKa i 2 2 \ % ; gt ty ‘Kur nowte xox Koje je ynyt- : ie, - se eee re ( i nia yniahenas 4 (FINS 36-6.) 1 j Me ole Postmark of Drina Division used on money order envelope in November 1915. This is a very late usage as all of Serbia was evacuated by the end of November when the country was occupied by Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria. WORLD WAR I Military Mail KY MOH M3noc ynyTuune y WH- d@pama ae 022 : L-1aSr 2 -_ fer J Tell leet oie je ynyt- Pur vio ana yudahena Military Posts/Timok Division 9 April 1915 CPBUJA Se no taral lt? SBANEE HG CyM) 00 == bo ge Ce eee f f (A TOMITAHCKA YIYTHHIA : oun. Ay apa y | WM CJIOBHMA. MA CE TIATH ye popeaion, Open Ay yar KE ey Jig. xace Ne - Tatrym CAyHOeHA O3Ha4eba Mecro mpena 2h lornue pee At ie Me Af hd jen | (TIM 36—6.) a Orpapa ce CBUX HUA Ce4veC bem USMERYV Postmark of Timok Division used on money order envelope by a soldier sending 18.40 dinars to Krusevac. WORLD WARI Military Posts/Limska Brigade Military Mail June 1915 Military Posts/Uzice Brigade 1 September 1915 ————— —— ————————— Bry -TOTBPBEHE MPHJEMA Bp. 1. | 4 Hanae cat uctipaBHo ipu.muo Houusoky nf as: ee. BD ooo! 4 2 | g 01 1p. oe aN aon OU... Examples of Lim Brigade postmark used on cover to Nish and Uzice Brigade cds on money order receipt for remittance of 200 dinars. WORLD WARI Kraljevo Military Mail 13 May 1915 Novi Pazar 12 May 1915 A foc EPR n, O7Ieg cotinine Serbie ae A K m | 3 JOMWMCHA RAPTA — CARTE POSTALE a eae CABE! a => i Jazz foe | ate . a ¥ Szenco bee re 2a 2e7 . ee TOP o 2C® edger : a dadpameHo Pajheais. The Serbs had a brief respite in early 1915 as the Austrians prepared their forces for a second assault. This delay didn't do much good for Serbia as the Allies were unable to provide assistance in men or munitions in the interim. Above examples show military mail posted through the nearest civil post office, WORLD WAR I Chuprija Russian Red Cross Mail 3 April 1915 Vinjci ese : 4 ; nie: 14 July 1915 This card with Imperial Russian cachet was censored in Nish (as indicated by three-line purple handstamp) and forwarded to addressee in Reval, Estonia. Serbie. g Correspondance we . ot - HIN. Gaa - 8 : y : militaire A : stal n’ 71. pa Section |. aS NY . Ra a ay 7 go = ft yee | € 5. ee 3 a age a! a a 2 = s S eo é 3 i mM : . 2 i a = La oe BS = ae i : 3s i poe : Soe | el ee Seis me ss = 8 Hie Gs < ct i 1 - oS ml S$ o at t - SS a 2a os a fomeceh : eo 8 BY @ i i i = ~~ 8: <2] : i x ta Cc “ ee : os ® © a . i ee oe a Tes a i bo Ss. 2 ae \ >} S fi 2 =e & eg . a 2. ¢ 2 i oe 2 eos 2 2, + 28.59 So & E22 z= By ec OF S&S Oo Be ° o o 28 = cm = * S 2 2 2s RB Hs * = g oS En 2 9 “x a ao & Zs $a 8 5= . eee) sO HR = * \ ler a The remaining offices for infantry divisions were 603 for the Moravska Division, FPO 711 for the Timok Division and FPO 801 for the Shumadia Division. Turn; Nat. — Modéle A' pour les troupes en opératlons. : WORLD WARI FPO 216 Salonica Front 4 December 1916 FPO 315 28 October 1916 CORRES sOupatce | , : DES ARMEES. DE LA A REPUBLIQUE, FPO 414 8 July 1917 “ia ae | jrewweCARTE EN FRANCHISE (40 i : E sia cs : {Fe tt ne Teepe en airentaaa ; CON A Bea 8 eM 7 lant : i : i ae Lt ss 2 RAP UIND ence Dey, Ea... i : i - fe} 28 =S 8h : i g bys” e624 = . LE eee pesccty Con prune. a ee : if | °e : : eS So oe 2 ‘2 i De .o% m Se a : Se em wo Peo Be Sw es £5 £5 2.25 5 & oe a e <8 i eset =e 6S St Sse = . oe ye or ne Chere EN. Lonntaie ——— nd Adresse : troupes en opfrations. roduire dans 7 teil, qf Oubshow WALLA Branch offices were established at the divisional headquarters. Most of the infantry divisions were named after rivers back in the homeland. For example, FPO 216 was located at the HQ of the Vardar Division, FPO 315 was assigned to the Drin Division and FPO 414 was for the Danube Division. WORLD WARI Salonica Front FPO 4 1 December 1917 FPO 8 20 February 1918 FPO 12 22 April 1917 CORRESPONDANCE £ Cd 4 Po fo ft iz 1 ne Oe : tury. Nav. — Modéle A! pour les trompes en opérations. a E LA -A REPUBLIQUE Bae EXPADITEUR: _pré oa Es eo see iz d az AD rH GP Sunt : - é Ee men Services \Nonret Mpa eM een ae OC Ang Cx € 3 & = 3 & a ° NSN. 5 Vv S: © Ss : br gecong / 8 : Q ‘ i A iti EAs 1 OR @ ‘ =i eS INS Se et i 5 Zf p 4 5 ay i he 3 4 oo aE oe » fieNobat 2 Ko i oe 2 fe fa Gore ff as ae ef: tet OAC EG ae 4 a5 i oo i i i 2 2 & Se s seq 3% Beg if cana wiylcnbaudlo Bo : @ bea 2 ee ee 8 Poe eS ; By S 4 2, ml m 2 ~~ i 3 i on eu a. 7, Serrcigreegee res 7A Be foe Get er Sa ae a) é ee Cataet Op ae é 2 € Bs 25 8 #5 sit 4 g £2422 2 3 : “Zs cay Seca QoS . The numbering of the smaller units followed a different pattern. For the infantry regiments, the number of the regiment was multiplied by four for its FPO number. This meant that the Ist Infantry Regiment was assigned FPO 4, the 2nd Regiment had FPO 8, and so on up through FPO 96 for the 24th Regiment. Whether this coding was designed to fool the Bulgarians and Germans is not known, but it would have been easy to solve. Ieuan WORLD WARI FPO 16 Salonica Front 14 June 1918 FPO 20 14 September 1917 2 FPO 24 28 July 1917 onthe ~ CORRESPONDANCE DES ARMFES DE LA REPUBLIQUE ei re go OE Ef bE : _ {t =. lew com Adresse 3 r fes troupes en opérations. Réviment These fieldpost stations were established to serve the 4th, Sth and 6th Infantry Regiments, respectively. WORLD WARI FPO 28 Salonica Front 1 July 1918 ee = «sina, & FPO 32 é Gy 20 August 1916 s e | FPO 36 ‘'j 17 January 1918 Ss

yh Iuez. Nar. — Modéle A! pour les troupes en opérations. Secteur Postal Weccecccecde 3 DQ & owe s = oO : Ss 8 we 6 & cB ° aN z = : a : 2 2 - ef a my ia $ = 2g oe Lo ‘ = ee 2 { bf? AATIS a Do -o.. 3 * zg g § Fag s eS S SS =a 7 7 =z 6 HES Lo 7 LEA EAA PACER IAG EL EG 7 a For the cavalry, a further type of designation was used, with "0" followed by a letter. Thus, Oa was for the 1st Cavalry Regiment and 0b for the second. WORLD WAR I FPO 414 Salonica Front 26 February 1919 Registered Mail Because ordinary cards and letters from soldiers were free of postage, the new "two heads" stamps of Serbia depicting King Peter and Prince Regent Alexander are not normally seen on military mail. However, in this example sent to Switzerland, postage was required (10 para international postcard rate plus 25 para for registration). Thus, a most unusual military usage. WORLD WARI Salonica Salonica Front 27 May 1916 Naval Mail ‘(Arts 483 de Tinstructon genérale.) Only one Serbian gunboat escaped destruction by the Austrians in the early phase of the war, and a second was purchased by the Government in Exile. These were the Solaire and the Zrak. Captain Branko Zdelar was the second in command of the Serbian Navy at Salonica. Above cover sent by him to his brother, whose office in Switzerland was tending to the welfare of Serbian POWs. Return address on reverse reads "Marine Commando (Solaire) Salonica." This is the only recorded example of naval mai} from this period. WORLD WARI Bitolj Liberation of Bitolia 27 July 1917 28 October 1918 pee age - — 2 Stee RT ers . % Ww .O2 F- 2 PEA & ata, % soe! SN a OIDs Boog. 0B , sé a x Postale (Cerne? | PT 1 45 a frdwia : ee ei py Yorhod a ie ke a al a : dh atl wanf fay wmf M, Jy Mad). 6 ie te “we > of aah, g, ae awn wt ort ed eB 4. OY PAN DERI Oar a oh 2 ragh Merry wy) | jor, la soy dy “y A] y “irrete. Ov nS chyba - ugg dori bora £ecG ee a 4 —wrvergiy b ry hy oe oe Pb gh ae | hy My . The most notable success of the Serbian Army on the Salonica Front was the advance northward to Bitolia, which was liberated on 19 November 1916 -- the only town recovered by the Serbs prior to the end of the war. An old postmark from the Balkan War era inscribed "Bitolj/Military Post" was used during this period. Above fieldpost cards show both outbound and inbound usages. WORLD WARI Bitolj Liberation of Bitolia 2 July 1917 Registered cover sent from Bitolia to Salonica where it was backstamped by the FPO 999 postmark. As Serbian stamps were not available, French postage was used. SERBIAN TROOPS ABROAD Although the bulk of the Serbian troops that were evacuated from Albanian ports on Allied ships were sent to Corfu, a substantial number went to Metropolitan France and French territories, including Corsica, Algeria and Tunisia. Smaller groups went to Britain and Italy. At the same time, Serbs and other South Slavs that had been members of the Austro-Hungarian forces and were captured on the Eastern Front were separated by the Russians and recruited to fight against their former compatriots. an _ “ Fontainebleau F 15 November 1916 CORRESPONDANCE MILITAIRES ; ; “Wile fA : Rennes —_——- Kige —s 1 October 1917 CARTE POS Gxpédié par Nite Lt fou, Ft wae Ee SSCceRean8 woBataillon [ _ Mwd-odoul anonton. sete. Bier: volves. sevbes Sz ~2 Eda - Sotonsane ee ee an Caine Milo eet eon cone : a tee) Ap FRANCHISE POSTALE REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE CORRESPONDAN MILITAIRE /. Yrs Sib h ressée & 2 ) WY MA . Aa erect re eles ee } ey F | : eden. Frounce Li] = | q DESIGNATIONS a M Stet OMAN & porter dans l’adresse i ipl Corps d’Armée — Régiment di l>NEEN Nur sy k ON ¢ ces - Bataillon ou Escadron Compagnie ou Batterie Section 0. Au besoin: c | Eta aor — Gee general SECTEUR POSTAL Ne UW) NOL : J s = « T° Pour la DESTINATION, consulter l'affiche anposée dans les bureaux de poste et les mairies. @) Avis essentiel 2° Les Cartes ne contenant que des nouvelles personnelles seront transmises RAPIDEMENT.- Serbian soldiers in France often used French patriotic postcards for their correspondence with other Serbs, who were mostly in Salonica on on Corfu. Postage was free for this service. WORLD WARI Evian les Bains Troops in France 16 August 1918 Le Havre 11 November 1917 eel 2 _Correspondagcé | os ‘ aes “aL tenes! CG: 4 R | Pa dbvun Cedvant torgend. naaJoe | Z x Nom et Adresse de YExpdditeur Iw IOy 2 Small numbers of Serb troops were scattered in various locations throughout France. In general, their mail can be identified by the return address, Serbian writing, and addressees in Salonica (or on Corfu). WORLD WARI Jausiers Troops in France 2 April 1917 9 June 1917 a Melare - Alle : aa Santee Vigclle Tie ae £. >: Expédifear’ Qyauvert LIA adivk EE evyagq. dato - G- - sate Yaurttid s (Bere © Reproduction interdite MAA Imp REGIONALE 18 RUE ST JACQUES MARSEILLE ies DEPOSE IMP. REGIONALE-le, RUE ST JACQUES -MARSE! A number of younger Serbs were sent to the Military School in Jausiers. This "Serbian University Battalion" used several different cachets on their mail, of which three are shown on the patriotic cards above. WORLD WARI Troops in France < DES > oF ker ECOLE Xe < SERBE wh z ‘ SAU SI ERS e Ss x Jausiers 29 September 1916 This cover has a completely different, uncommon type of round cachet of the Serbian Military School in Jausiers. WORLD WAR I Toulon Troops in France 5 August 1917 24 January 1918 Letter and postcard from the Serbian Military Depot in Toulon sent to Switzerland and Italy. Although this is official mail, it is unclear as to how payment of postage <— - N eh Rae was avoided since = : addressed to foreign i countries. These cachets are very elusive, being the only examples seen by exhibitor. CARTE POSTALE Bh Bags Ce cété est exclusivement réservé a Vadresse. VE ti i) JS LY IVCOL 3 a ef Toulon WORLD WARI Troops in France 24 February 1917 Vichy 30 May 1918 : ye ee Hiatt Fan eee Li, da bifecll CART ROSE ict fale tz LP. te S05 40" 8 = : S pies blob by 3 OI O ae pr is yy od vovcbyearm bb 0>G) : me v e Lite ge Di any ay > | Salonga | Bere. d- BL ab Dear 10D 9 In some cases, the examples shown may be the only ones seen from a particular French location in a large collection of Serbian WWI military mail. This description applies to the card from Vichy showii above. Ee WORLD WARI Marseille Troops in France : 4 January 1917 9 June 1917 Mail from Serbian functionaries in Marseille: The Delegate of the Serbian Ministry of War and the Serbian Consulate General. The cover above is addressed to a Serbian soldier in the Alexandra Military Hospital in Monte Carlo. WORLD WARI Paris Officials in France 31 October 1917 LEGATION ROYALE DE SERBIE EN FRANCE f COMMISSAIRE GENERAL DE SERBIE POUR LES REFUGIES SERBES EN FRANCE PARIS. (XVID) 12, RUE LEONCE-REYNAUD i ff f | | The Royal Serbian Legation in Paris served as the headquarters of the Commissioner General for the Serb Refugees in France. This cover sent within Paris has the corner card and cachet of the Commissioner. However, the addressee had departed without providing a forwarding address, so the letter was retumed. WORLD WARI Paris Diplomatic Mail 6 October 1916 Geneva LEGATION ROYALE DE SERBIE EN FRANGE mocpieciber 985 COMMISSAIRE GENERAL DU GOUVERNEMENT ROYAL. POUR LES REFUGIES SERBES EN FRANCE PARIS (xvit & 12, RUE LEONCE-REYNAUD ———_-+e. Ministére de 1 ‘’Intéricur “tA Be Ve Ploece auVegu. Ss ie a tf ~ _CONSULAT GENERAL DE | Gendve 11 me du Stand es oe Upper cover from the Commissioner General for Serbian refugees in the Serbian Legation in France during WWI. Lower example of an imprinted envelope of the General Consulate of Serbia in Geneva modified by a rubber stamp to reflect the change to the General Consulate of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. WORLD WARI Ajaccio Troops on Corsica 1 April 1918 @ FRANCE « GRANDE-BRETAGNE « ITALIER % _ JARC a BE * MONTENEGRO x ETATS-UNIS D’AMERIOQUB CHINE * MIGUYS % AISSOU * AINVINAOY * IVOOLNOd % wmrvmeneye WVIS 3 l Y yy Yj ZI Z soitle dépét du corps®, Zz soit la résidence™, (2) Pour les militaires faisant partie des troupes en opérations. (2) Pour les militaires au dépot ou ceux dont l’adresse n’est pas exactement connue. (Une affiche apposée dans ies bureaux de poste indique les villes sicges de deépét des corps de troupe des différentes armes. ) (3) Pourles ee Pyeipiacs! fe, hdpital, gardfdes, voles, etes) Nom et adresse ( «& AX AYO EA PAU DL LOG ae de (BXPEDITEUR: 2 Y (e, @ i i F ins i> is g | OG yewweewese BELGIQUE & (Ba reen| Hane bbarechal OLn000 eS: : e Meee yo & A Other Serbians went to the French Island of Corsica. Examples shown represent both outbound and inbound mail. WORLD WARI Bouzareah Troops in Algeria 18 March 1916 - Charles La pt ba bit Lote, ates gm ie Cs 4 Zp A ~~ Blache oy | (DP fl AV [C4 é WATE. wire > Loe Ge oS EL ES Z Cue. cos iat 20 ag. y Ss = a a I x “3 = & ay x = 3 Ex As with other French territories, some of the evacuated Serbian soldiers were sent to Algeria, thus relieving French garrison troops for service on the Western Front. Both outbound and inbound examples are shown. WORLD WARI Mogrine Troops in Tunisia 10 April 1916 Q Bizerte 21 September 1918 EArt | inf? CARTE oS CORRESPONDANCE 243 -Lip1y1e. Far mo Bpary. Ilpio6p3 ‘valire xe OuaeTbr salma, HaHocHTe ygapp 3a :, —D yastome BpaxeckHMb NOAKaMD. * Nien tere Nolan , (oO iy 6 JTBE Vis Ve Me Te. I > eo ee oe AN J eg Yas MOA. evo boas fH} od sf Pe dar i, Y- ev RA Kagul (Bessarabia) 3 July 1917 Se OP) eee Patriotic postcard sent to Paris by a Serbian volunteer serving in the Russian 12th Division. A very elusive usage. q wVHIOND® nvr o. easau mep., 11. ‘Hea a wi e Yupapaenia me ghaamrs meanaro Rpeguta. Cnaag® usgania Be hace Bi see Hka Meanaro Kpegura‘, Metporpagn, Heanoncxas, 13. ee Ye a 4h; + Netporpaae. Dossoneno soennot uensypo 15—X—191% +. \ Urvwrin apdowtrite 4ente Rona <5 Postcard sent to a Serb serving in the 5th Company of the 20th Battalion from a compatriot with the 6th Company of the 24th Battalion. The large cachet reads "From the Active Army." WORLD WARI Odessa Troops in Russia 23 May 1917 , OTKPLITCe nuCbMO. — 7 “pf Aete/A. This postcard was mailed from a nurse at the Headquarters of the 1st Serbian Volunteer Division in Odessa to a soldier in the 2nd Serbian Cavalry Battalion in Berezovka. Message expresses enthusiasm about the forthcoming struggle and the good spirit in the forces about going home to liberate the country and create a South Slav state. Note straight-line censor mark reading "Serbian Military Control," not recorded in the literature. WORLD WARI Troops in Russia Patriotic postcard of the Second Serbian Volunteer Division in Russia. Sent internally from one member of the Division to the priest of the VII Regiment, Second Division, located at Gulay. This is the only recorded example of Second Division mail. Vosnesensk 30 May 1917 26 July 1917 Postal card sent from a Colonel Milontinovitch in the First Serbian Volunteer Division in Russia. It is addressed to the French Consul in Tunis and was sent by French diplomatic pouch to Paris, where it entered the mail stream on 13 July and was forwarded to Tunisia. A highly unusual usage. CoE Lc SEIT NE aR Re nor amgeane =< oe oa career a sont : ee ~—SCt<“it~*s:sSGHA APTA’ 3 CPACKHX PATHHKA VIII NEWenY KAR g WGpna0s.anensnse Paseo nae eve url avers {\092%/9-muaaoneng ndanurpurneuarosus “ee »YMPEREMO OBn GO JEAHOr Nn GAOAOAY GBH AMATH. N& NOTOKA KPBH HAWE — Cnosoga KE SABANGTATH : ot POST-WORLD WAR I Vladivostok-Harbin TPO Troops in Russia 14 July 1919 CANADIAN 8S N EXPEDITION Canadian patriotic envelope for letter from soldier Markovic at Jugoslav Volunteer HQ in Vladivostok to Luka Vujinovic of the 1st Battalion, Second Jugoslav Reg't in Chelyabinsk. Letter could not be delivered because of Bolshevik capture of Chelyabinsk ten days later. It was taken along during the retreat of Admiral Kolchak’'s forces and ended up with a Russian FPO marking in Rzhev dated 5 January 1920. A most unusual usage. LIBERATION OF SERBIA The Serbian Government in Exile on Corfu, anticipating the liberation of the country, ordered new stamps to be printed in Paris. These were inscribed "Kingdom of Serbia" and showed the heads of the venerable King Peter and his son, Prince Regent Alexander. The set was issued on 1 October 1918 at the Serbian FPOs in the Salonica area and at Bitolj in Macedonia, which had already been liberated. (They were also valid at the ministerial post office on Corfu from 5 October 1918 until March 1919.) As Serbian forces moved north following the surrender of Austria and Bulgaria, the stamps were introduced throughout Serbia and Montenegro. This final issue of Serbia can be found used on its own and in mixed franking with stamps of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats & Slovenes until their validity ended in April 1921. Issue of 1918 2 c < a ws ° S w n 2 ww Added to Create The Kingdom of the Serbs, ‘Croats & Slovenes Bitolj 14 November 1918 etd Ry ae a ae 4 Picture postcard mailed from Bitolj to Turin, Italy via FPO 333. POST-WORLD WAR I Krusevac Military Mail 15 March 1919 Skopje 4 April 1919 Tsarevo Selo 25 June 1919 Camo 2a aapecy. 7 : CPBUJA HOMNUCHA KAPT CORRESPONDANCE MILITAIRE getenchir Boe Nom et prénoms Bia ey, Ge. 4 Coabeicrst du destinataire a oy Grade ou emploi..... OL Pag eee ee © HScadronehe i aes ...° Compagnie a © Batterie x2 © Secvlon er ee si Les cartes ouvertes sorte, pu Aatttiies aux militaires et ne contenant que des nou ihe personnelles seront trans- f pee mises immédiatement. Blat Moor ee ee Les lettres fermées ou contenant d’autres indications que ce qui sont indiquées ci-dessus peuvent subir certains retards. Because of the unsettled geopolitical situation for several years after the end of World War I, Serbia retained a substantial number of men under arms. As before, cards and letters sent by the troops were free of postage. POST-WORLD WAR I Veles Military Mail 20 October 1918 Belgrade 13 Match 1919 ApyWiTe 2a SauTatTy exe. CcnoBpano HoBsmOpa 19a, “GOR. 7 Bone in Sea : <4 BUUKOP MH MOPQTHOP HapoTWoOL rai WHA OTKAIAbY CBUjY Y8p@ker NQbQ: ena BeAMKe CMPTHOCTH KOJI elke, Kader Tuo Re MoOpaIHOV Mpotayama; a npdeugonego a pn a a KYI.bA W Aa Ce Crapa 0 HanyuITeHOj 1 HesopH- HYTOj CUM, KaO UO AeUM CpmcKHX paTHuka. — Mp Oh, robe Payu nocrurayha opora Wuiba ApPYUITBO O- I CHUBA pase yeTaHOBe 3a Welly. : | Jpyuirso ma 3a cay 3 ogenKa: JTeuje Crao- A. Aegon Eta F muume, Paaenu Cman Maaux Yemnuuna u Tlaa- g, CU, nuucku u Paduuuxy Lkoazy 3a oxpacinje AeuvaKe HW AEBOFUNLC. — Unanopu: pedosnu miahajy 6 xi, roexnmme, ae \ ymemepait wajMathe 50 WMH, roammme, dodpo- / VM OL. | meopu Hajsaiwe 500 yu. jeqaHoM 3a CBaraa Mu 6e- Lr eas ee | AUK Oo6pomeopu HayMaibe 1.000 AuH. jeqHoM 3a cBarga. py uirsy ne Ub Ta on WOTM3ab Yuem npuxod 00 o6ux Kapama je HaMerbel 3a Opyurmecie Ulwese. — BOJHHYKA AONUCHA HAPTA SE : * aMo 3a arpecy Upper fieldpost card sent from Veles to Bitolia via FPO 999 in Salonica. Lower card mailed from Belgrade to Krusevac. It has the very elusive censor mark of the Military Hospital. POST-WORLD WAR I Uzice Military Mail 9 February 1920 Vranje 6 February 1919 | KROATISCHE KUNS! | HRVATSKA UMJETNOST | ada? CROATE reef ie " Naonare once SP UT. a. By sverige au gegen rae coral oem Vere we Merc hyo Vorauue: Xyzox, marasmup ,Bapzaps* Cxonue, x Bs xy Qt ce Steney ee as al a g g | PX 2 Tbh bey Se ae Sono ee “eae q &E A Soldiers' mail was subject to censorship even after the cessation of hostilities, but this was not always carried out. POSTWAR OCCUPATION OF HUNGARY Following the surrender of Austria-Hungary, Serbian troops pushed northward across the Danube to occupy territories which they hoped to annex following the peace treaties. Hungarian stamps continued to be valid for postage in these areas for some months after the end of the war, with Serbian censorship markings being applied. Bacska Territory Titel 30 November 1918 Pancsova 4 December 1918 wy eg LaP\ a “ed ey Oka 9 tee ot rE sen . ; No : AUR SE REPELS SENSE clon Od Hy ARE ad pL Re it erie is a g a ~ 4 t RA qe eel Kt beef rh , Picture postcard with \ : rf ee ae NN oval marking reading 1 se) t 3) owt ue "Royal Serbian/Military Cis Kons 4 aT) Censor/Titel." 4 y eo e& ¢ aly rR ‘ might ; : od - PAE NT a t ees ? t g ab O A dette GS Nf p Hungarian postal card uprated for registration. Circular marking of "Royal Serbian/Military Censor/Pancevo." OCCUPATION OF HUNGARY Ujvidek Bacska Territory 18 March 1919 29 March 1919 ae Sees Sage PAN : Even during the Serbian - occupation, the Hungarian ' postal authorities continued ‘ to supply stamps for use in ‘ this area until the Bolshevik takeover ia Budapest during March 1919, ER, at th Registered cover to Fiume, franked with Royal Hungarian stamps. Note Serbian censor marking of Novi Sad, the new Slavic name for Ujvidek. Ajéniott ER hg lathe Letcher a — Following the armistice, the Serbians occupied the Bacska (between the Danube and Tisza Rivers) and the Banat (east of the Tisza). OCCUPATION OF HUNGARY Felsokabol Bacska Territory 11 December 1918 12 April 1919 | drs, 16-1. 18. 2 : 4 4 er ia Downe as ene Prortragase in Bavari Sik Ae Donne Arr Ae; La one Me PreSir 2 Dd oa i Fe (mane Nee Oued - oe ecw pnb v > Prin cE ist}. Kunst, nchen,. P AA SS pS rene ie A- Wine e Ay ae Beret go Brey ae. ey Inet é 7 3 Br Nic acen tn Wo fr CHL, My S to em DE1Ore. alee 2 eed és, Tote it, ARK ce me. - (Cathédrale xine fae. ol (| oe ee (Bre NAY ND tM Men SL ee Uchodicy Réfugiés f Refugees i oe 5 OF A if E B ay ae ob hy bi i iC E A oo F ZZ. CPHCRO : “28 Sie. Kq | BOJHA WEHSYPA | | / ~ 4 | Ss a oot y HE Pn 1 ROW é . a Postcards mailed from Felsokabol to Zombor, with two different "Kingdom of Serbia/Military Censor" markings being applied. In both cases, a delay of several weeks between the manuscript dateline and the cancel suggests that mail did not go through very rapidly in view of the unsettled political situation in the area. OCCUPATION OF HUNGARY Szabadka Bacska Territory 11 April 1919 22 November 1919 2 e +a % “abEVELEZO-LAB A | e 6 i. kir, allami + jomda. Budapest, 1918 Unlike the censorship markings used elsewhere, Szabadka (Serbian name = Subotica) used # boxed rectangular mark reading "Passed." Note that a registered postcard from this period is an unusual usage. Ofutak 20 January 1919 Zombor 14 March 1919 OCCUPATION OF HUNGARY Bacska Territory © a i as ee “6¢7 “IN WMD. D a \ | Qaxnyes lorvelel sump Curses ok “ , «shel st SELL, Tare oly ahh tase hogy _: Boldogsag “ Ni A & C. Benesch: Liebesgliick . Ofutak (Futog) also had an unusual censor marking consisting of two lines, unframed. Zombor (Sombor) had a very attractive oval marking as shown on the lower postcard. OCCUPATION OF HUNGARY Zombor 25 April 1919 25 July 1919 Bacska Territory In a few towns, the local SS i x military authorities created unauthorized overprints on Hungarian stamps. In the case of Zombor, the overprint consisted of the Serbian coat of arms. These stamps can be found on cover but are regarded as a strictly private issue and are unlikely to have gone through the mail in spite of the three-line Zombor censor marking. OCCUPATION OF HUNGARY FPO Banat 18 May 1919 LIE eee E G. Tome: | Ky ech IN \dc ME UNG OGften 4, LEVELEZO-LAP | te herve ein Bees Abn hrmnrebaey, ophegee eee LOIN, Moknhiba yh Up.d Temesvar, the capital of the Banat, was entered on 10 November 1918. However, this move by the Serbs was disputed by Romania, which also claimed the province. The situation was resolved with the eastern two-thirds of the Banat going to Romania and the Serb forces evacuating Temesvar (Timisoara) on 27 July 1919. Above postcards were sent by Serbian soldiers during the occupation of Temesvar. Upper example was subject to Serb censorship at Pancevo and Vel. Beckerek. OCCUPATION OF HUNGARY Budapest Banat 22 February 1919 Lugos 4 April 1919 Upper postcard was sent from Budapest to Temesvar, which was then occupied by the Serbs. It received a circular censorship marking of Temesvar upon arrival. The cover below was similarly censored as it passed through Temesvar en route to Switzerland. OCCUPATION OF HUNGARY Bezdan Banat 29 November 1919 i | LO Ales “ay x Cee f fe eae z See Layee Ss ice we AADAC ee QAw A ( NI {dine Bo. x mo . ln ah area J \ iy Ls Ca = Once fresh supplies of stamps were no longer forthcoming from Budapest, the most widely used denominations began to run out. As a result, the Banat district authorities produced surcharged 10 and 45 filler stamps (for ordinary and registered letters) on 15 May 1919. OCCUPATION OF HUNGARY Temesvar Banat 28 July 1919 LEIPNIK MANO OKL. MERNOK HITES TORVENYSZEKI SZAKERTO MUSZAKI IRODAJA Temesvar-Belv , Agrarpalota Il. em. R |. Temasvar 1 1 | 9188 ja) Csendes Testvérek, Temesvar. * On 1 July 1919, three additional surcharges were issued to meet urgent postal needs. The above registered cover was sent to Bucharest. Note the red circular Romanian censor marking. OCCUPATION OF HUNGARY Temesvar Banat-Bacska 28 July 1919 28 July 1919 7 ott Zoe. ok is we Ae < CS” Voges Le pia EF “ Temesvar 3 boners Ho In the "twilight" period when the Serbians were withdrawing and the Romanians arriving, the Banat district authorities issued a new set of overprints reading "Banat/Bacska/1919" for use in the territory. Although not strictly an issue of the Serbian occupation, they are closely related and included here for historical perspective. OCCUPATION OF HUNGARY Pecs Baranya 18 October 1919 In addition to the areas that were annexed to the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats & Slovenes, the Serbian army also temporarily occupied the Baranya county of Hungary proper (between the Tisza and Drava Rivers) from 15 November 1918 to 20 August 1920. The above cover was underpaid, being franked with a 20 filler unoverprinted Hungarian stamp, so it was marked "60 f." in blue and that amount in adhesives (with an internal post office marking of "VI") was added for the postage due. OCCUPATION OF HUNGARY Pecs Baranya 25 July 1919 29 July 1919 916 Alt és Béhm kiadasa, Pécs As in the Banat, Hungarian stamps were provided until the Bolshevik takeover of Budapest. At that point, a set of overprints, some surcharged with new values, was prepared and placed on sale on 5 May 1919. OCCUPATION OF HUNGARY Baranya Pecs 10 January 1920 ae : Uszog < ' a 23 February 1920 Registered letter and lettercard uprated with semicircular "Baranya" overprints. aera: oh? ee BAA a . TAA : : As supplies of the first issue began to run short, a second issue was authorized. In this case, the "Baranya" overprint was semi-circular instead of horizontal and the "1919" was left off. All of these were surcharged with new values. Both Baranya issues remained valid for postage until 21 August 1921. OCCUPATION OF HUNGARY Villany Baranya 6 February 1920 Pecs June 1920 S58 SS SOSS SOD AA SODAAGDOROS kin, fA. A, ss Ctaedee allami nyomda. 1916. Gi |e pip 2) EPCOT OF LI ITF POD 6 Oly lode Allamokkal valé forgalomra, hova a levelezélap dija f fillér, kiilén 10 aiferes levelezGlapok ‘snolaal ODDIE COE DPOLLLLLLEL LE LLLL SOLES LLECL LS LLL SESE SESE LO SNS M PEeSsesracecsonss ! a Boeee-an: BE EEeE i 2 noo Be $ ee a Se i Bs eg age eae te ao ——— Unusual usages of postal cards in the Baranya. Upper example sent to Vienna was a domestic rate card of 30 filler. Thus, it was assessed the double deficiency postage due of 80 heller on arrival in Austria. Lower example was originally a Hungarian World War I fieldpost card but converted into a 15 filera SHS postal card and then uprated with "Baranya" overprints for registered despatch to Switzerland. OCCUPATION OF HUNGARY Perlak Medjimurje 4 February 1919 Stridovar 10 March 1919 In Perlak (Prelog in Croatian) the royal Hungarian stamps were Overprinted by hand "SHS" and issued by the local authorities on 22 December 1918. The old postmarks and registry labels were used until new supplies could be provided. A second local Overprint was applied at Mursko Sredisce to Stamps that were issued on 3 January 1919. This registered cover is franked with a combination of a block of four locals and stamps officially overprinted for use in Croatia. The Medjimurje territory was located between the Drava and Mura Rivers. After the armistice, it was occupied by Croatian and Serbian troops and annexed to Croatia. Locally overprinted Hungarian stamps remained in use until Croatian ones became available. OCCUPATION OF HUNGARY Prekomurje Lendvavasarhely 12 August 1919 Belatincz — 7 September 1919 The Lendvavasarhely local issue was issued on 10 August 1919, with the overprint being applied to a variety of Hungarian stamps, including the royal and republic. The Belatincz "SHS" overprints were issued on 12 August 1919. G.FranjoKrizani . 4rinskega ¢c.5 Prekomurje (across the Mura) was located to the north of the river. Under the terms of the armistice, it remained a part of Hungary. However, following the collapse of the Bolshevik government in Budapest, Prekomurje was occupied by South Slav troops in August 1919. POST-WORLD WAR I London Boundary Commission 4 July 1921 12 September 1921 = names ws a on ‘epmyiber j k ee Seda --9-Gileg. . BS ett... LT COL ae Saee 6 See ee eee % G6 6#E@ Sat a a ISH CC Boundaries were disputed between Serbia and Bulgaria following World War I. A special commission, including a British Delegate, Lt. Col. Frank Giles of the Royal Engineers, was sent to the area to work out the proper borders. These covers were sent by Giles to his wife in England via diplomatic pouch to London, where they entered the mail stream. Such usage not seen previously by exhibitor. EPILOGUE Related to but not a part of World War I, Serbian forces occupied a disputed border area around Peshkopi, Albania from September to December 1921. However, in November the Conference of Ministers reaffirmed Albania's 1913 boundaries, and League of Nations pressure induced Jugoslavia to withdraw. : Piskopeja KING PETER 10 October 1921 Occupation of Albania 16 November 1921 spe oF Ca jo x PIRI SL LPP LP PE De sn SO Fa GO) murs |p FETE TET Ee aes : ae ETSY Z ane GRE é | | ‘ | i i | €sBrmamea | ea (EEN A (fee SR Covers from this period are extremely elusive, especially registered mail as shown above. Upper cover from a captain in the 3rd Battalion, 22nd Regiment to Breslau, Germany. Sender was uncertain about his return address, so used both "Albania" and "S.H.S." The initials stood for the then Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.