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To recap:

O four distinct periods of stamp usages during Vichy consisted of: (1) Use of Third Republic

stamps, (2) Use of Vichy stamps, (3) Use of Vichy and Third Republic stamps during the Giraud anti-

German administration, and (4) use of Vichy and Third Republic stamps after Free French takeover

O Identifying timely uses depends solely on determining dates of loalty to Free French.

O Interaction between dates and finding distinct period covers hampers finding of such covers

since most sources unaware of interaction. Added to this is the fact that many clearly Vichy items

disappeared from market-place long ago – collected by enthusiasts seeking to preserve a unique

chapter of French postal history.

Particularly so with lesser known French possessions - French India and Kouang Tcheou come to

mind. Surprisingly, French Indochina also fits in this category – as virtually no 1941 – 1945 covers

have ever been observed in the past decade of collecting its postal history. Perhaps, this is a

direct consequence of the three decade long war fought by the French and the U.S. in Vietnam.

I hope you’ve enjoyed this presentation on a little known modern postal history subject. Should any such covers come your way, please do not hesitate in contacting me at