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Vietnam, Democratic Republic (DRV - Viet Minh – 1945 to 1954): The Viet Minh, founded by Ho Chi Minh, was in revolt against Free French from October 1945. Revolt included seizure of Vichy stamps, their overprinting, and LIMITED postal usage during the Viet Minh postal administration – 1945 to 46 (see 4 covers below). These stamps are known as the IL number of the DRV

(see Left) Little is known of their postal usage, and legitimate covers are extraordinarily scarce. On December 16 – 18, 1946, the Viet Minh attacked Hanoi. Viet Minh resistance took the French nearly two months to overcome. In the interlude, post offices were looted and the stockpiles of stamps formed part of the prize of the Viet Minh postal service.

D. Use of VICHY, FREE FRENCH, THIRD REPUBLIC Issues after joining Free French